1. 中国科学院青藏高原研究所,北京 100101
• 出版日期:2014-06-10
• 基金资助:
国家自然科学基金优秀青年科学基金项目“青藏高原水文学”（编号：41322001）;国家自然科学基金重大项目“第三极地球系统中水体的多相态转换及其影响”之第三课题“水体多相态转换过程中的界面能量平衡过程”（编号：41190083）资助

### Hydrological modelling over the Tibetan Plateau: Current status and Perspective

Lei Wang( ), Xiuping Li, Jing Zhou, Wenbin Liu, Kun Yang

1. Institute of Tibetan Plateau Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
• Online:2014-06-10 Published:2014-06-10

This paper describes the current status and perspective for the hydrological modelling over the Tibetan Plateau (TP). Hydrological models, as primary tools to study hydrological processes, can provide theoretical and decision support for water resources management as well as disaster prevention and mitigation in river basins. As is known, the first-generation hydrological models are “lumped”, and the second-generation hydrological models are “distributed”. However, most of the above models mainly describe the “precipitation-to runoff” water transport processes (“hydrosphere”) without carefully addressing the special role of vegetation in the water and energy exchanges in the landatmosphere interactions (“biosphere-atmosphere”). Over the past decade, in the context of climate change, with the vibrant developments of atmospheric science and ecology, distributed hydrological models began to describe the biosphereatmosphere interactions by improving the water and energy cycle formulations between the land and atmosphere, as well as enhancing the descriptions of physiological processes of vegetation. Up to now, a comprehensive description of hydrosphere-biosphere-atmosphere interactions in river basins has been realized by the hydrological community. However, regarding TP with a large portion of cryosphere land cover, the detailed cryospheric processes are of essence to be further considered in the multi-sphere hydrological modeling over TP. This will largely contribute to studies of the interaction mechanism among the cryosphere and other spheres (hydrosphere /biosphere /atmosphere), and thus improve the predictive ability of the region’s water resources and water-related disasters.

Fig.1 Overall structure of multi-sphere hydrological model WEB-DHM (a)Division of sub-basins;(b)Further division of a sub-basin into several flow intervals following the concept of equal stream lines;(c)For each model grid, slope length and slope angle are calculated with the sub-grid parameterization;(d)For each model grid, the exchanges of water, energy, CO2 between land and atmosphere are calculated, and thus get the vertical soil moisture profiles as well as the interceptions by canopy and ground. Finally, hillslope runoff (including surface runoff, subsurface flow, and groundwater runoff) is calculated using the sub-grid scheme. Here, the runoff of a flow interval is the total runoff of all model grids within the specified flow interval. Finally, the river routing is carried out for all the flow intervals within the whole basin

Fig.2 Schematic diagram of the development of multi-sphere hydrological model for the Tibet Plateau