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地球科学进展  2014, Vol. 29 Issue (6): 734-747    DOI: 10.11867/j.issn.1001-8166.2014.06.0734
学科发展与研究     
风沙地貌形态动力学研究进展
张正偲, 董治宝
中国科学院寒区旱区环境与工程研究所中国科学院沙漠与沙漠化重点实验室, 甘肃 兰州 730000
Research Progress on Aeolian Geomorphology and Morphodynamics
Zhang zhengcai, Dong zhibao
Key Laboratory of Desert and Desertification, Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000, China
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摘要:

风沙地貌是广泛分布于干旱、半干旱,甚至部分湿润地区,由风力作用形成的一种地貌类型。风沙地貌学是研究在风力作用下物质运动形成的地表形态特征、空间组合规律及其形成演变的科学,是地貌学中以风为外营力形成的地貌为对象的分支学科。风是风沙地貌学研究的基础,其贯穿整个风沙地貌学研究。风况决定了风沙地貌的形态特征、空间组合特征和演化过程,同时,沙丘表面气流和风沙流控制沙丘的形态演化过程和移动过程。风沙地貌经过100多年的发展,在沙丘形态特征、动力学过程等方面取得了长足发展。从风沙地貌观测方法、分析方法和形态动力学角度出发,总结了近年来风沙地貌形态、形成风况以及动力学方面的研究进展。随着新技术的发展,全站仪、三维地形扫描仪等新的形态观测设备开始应用于风沙地貌形态测量,使得大范围风沙地貌形态精准测量成为可能,为风沙地貌形态动力学研究提供精确的地形特征资料。同时,三维超声风速仪等高频风速观测仪器也广泛应用于风沙地貌动力学观测,从而探讨风沙地貌形态—近地层气流的互馈机制。但是,针对具体的分析方法,如风况与沙丘形态的对应关系,近地层气流的分析方法以及形态—气流互馈关系等方面,目前还没有好的解决办法。

关键词: 形态动力学气流风沙地貌风况    
Abstract:

Aeolian geomorphology is formed by wind power in arid, semi-arid, and even humid regions. It is the study of the characteristics of land surface patterns, spatial combinations, formation, and development. Wind regime controls aeolian geomorphology patterns, spatial combinations, and development. Near surface air flow and aeolian flow control the development and movement of dunes. Recently, the field has developed rapidly. This paper summarized recent progress in aeolian geomorphology patterns, wind regime, and dune morphodynamics based on aeolian geomorphology observation methods, analysis method and morphodynamics. The new terrain observation techniques, such as Total Station and three dimensional terrain scanner, provided accuracy terrain data for morphodynamics study. Meanwhile, three dimensional sonic sensor measured high frequency field wind velocity data, which gave more information on the relationship between terrain and near surface air flow. However, the analysis method, such as the relationship between wind regime and dune types, high frequency wind velocity data and reciprocal relationship between dune pattern and near surface air flow, is still not solved.

Key words: Morphodynamics    Aeolian geomorphology    Wind regime    Air flow.
出版日期: 2014-06-10
:  P931.3  
基金资助:

国家自然科学基金项目“腾格里沙漠格状沙丘形成与演化过程”(编号:41101007); 国家重点基础研究发展计划项目“青藏高原沙漠化对全球变化的响应”(编号:2013CB956000)资助

作者简介: 作者简介:张正偲(1979-),男,甘肃靖远人,副研究员,主要从事风沙物理和风沙地貌研究. E-mail:zhangzhsi@sina.com
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张正偲, 董治宝. 风沙地貌形态动力学研究进展[J]. 地球科学进展, 2014, 29(6): 734-747.

Zhang zhengcai, Dong zhibao. Research Progress on Aeolian Geomorphology and Morphodynamics. Advances in Earth Science, 2014, 29(6): 734-747.

链接本文:

http://www.adearth.ac.cn/CN/10.11867/j.issn.1001-8166.2014.06.0734        http://www.adearth.ac.cn/CN/Y2014/V29/I6/734

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