地球科学进展 ›› 2016, Vol. 31 ›› Issue (12): 1235 -1246. doi: 10.11867/j.issn.1001-8166.2016.12.1235

综述与评述 上一篇    下一篇

张莉 1, 王金满 1, 2*, *, 刘涛 1   
  1. 1.中国地质大学(北京)土地科学技术学院,北京 100083;
    2.国土资源部土地整治重点实验室,北京 100085
  • 收稿日期:2016-08-25 修回日期:2016-10-31 出版日期:2016-12-20
  • 通讯作者: 王金满(1979-),男,内蒙古赤峰人,教授,主要从事土地整治与生态恢复研究.E-mail:wangjinman2002@163.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目“ 基于多重分形理论的黄土区大型露天煤矿排土场土壤重构机理与调控模式”(编号:41271528)资助

Landscape Reconstruction and Recreation of Damaged Land in Opencast Coal Mine: A Review

Zhang Li 1, Wang Jinman 1, 2, *, Liu Tao 1   

  1. 1.College of Land Science and Technology,China University of Geosciences (Beijing),Beijing 100083, China;
    2.Key Laboratory of Land Consolidation and Rehabilitation Ministry of Land and Resources,Beijing 100035,China
  • Received:2016-08-25 Revised:2016-10-31 Online:2016-12-20 Published:2016-12-20
  • Contact: Wang Jinman(1979-),male,Chifeng City,Inner Mongolia,Professor. Research areas include land remediation and ecological restoration.E-mail:wangjinman2002@163.com
  • About author:First author:Zhang Li(1993-),female,Chifeng City,Inner Mongolia,Master student. Research areas include land remediation and ecological restoration.E-mail:18813033581@163.com
  • Supported by:
    Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China “Mechanism and regulation model of soil reconstruction in the dump of large scale opencast coal mine in Loess area based with multi fractal theory”(No.41271528)
露天煤炭的开采过程造成了对土地的挖损、占用,重型机械的参与导致土壤受到严重压实,致使地表植被难以正常生长,加大水土流失发生频率,使矿区土地景观受到损坏。因此,开展矿区受损土地景观的重塑与再造,恢复已受损的土地已成为土地复垦和生态恢复领域未来发展的关键。针对露天矿区土地景观受损特点,总结了遥感、GPS RTK、无人机、三维激光扫描等国内外相关领域获取受损土地景观信息的技术方法,分形及景观指数法等受损土地表征方法,并归纳了景观生态学、微地形和仿自然地貌等土地景观重塑与再造理论,发现在进行露天矿区土地景观获取与表征中缺乏无人机、三维激光扫描新型景观获取技术和分形等表征方法的深入应用,指出今后研究还需在获取景观数据等技术方面进行加强,注重分形参数与受损景观表征意义的深入探讨,继续探究创建景观生态学、微地形等多种重塑再造理论相互融合下的矿区受损土地景观规划技术体系,以期为露天矿区受损土地景观重塑与再造提供理论指导和科学依据。
Land resources in opencast coal mine are excavated and occupied during the process of mining. Severe soil compaction resulted from heavy machinery lead to a series of consequences: vegetation cannot grow normally, loss of soil and water take place constantly, and landscape is damaged. Therefore, for the future development of reclamation and ecological restoration in opencast coal mine, it has become one major task to carry out the reconstruction of damaged landscape. According to the damage characteristics of land landscape in mining area, this paper summarized the data acquisition methods of damaged land landscape in this field, including remote sensing, GPS RTK, UAV, 3D laser scanning. Fractal and landscape index methods reflecting landscape were also reviewed. Besides, landscape remodeling and reconstruction theories were concluded, which include landscape ecology, microtopography and imitated-nature landform. Base on the above mentioned, it was found out that the UAV, 3D laser scanning technologies and fractal characterization method were rarely applied. In order to provide theoretical guidance and scientific basis for improving the effect of damaged landscape reconstruction and recreation in opencast coal mine, future research should be targeted on strengthening technology, deepening the fractal theory, creating landscape planning and technology system of damaged land.


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