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地球科学进展  2017, Vol. 32 Issue (12): 1297-1306    DOI: 10.11867/j.issn.1001-8166.2017.12.1297
大洋钻探科学目标展望     
海底CORK观测30年:发展、应用与展望
方家松1,2(), 李江燕1, 张利3,*()
1.上海海洋大学深渊科学与技术研究中心,上海 201306
2.青岛海洋科学与技术国家实验室海洋生物学与生物技术功能实验室, 山东 青岛 266071
3.中国地质大学(武汉)地球科学学院,地质过程与矿产资源国家重点实验室,湖北 武汉 430074
Thirty Years of the Seafloor CORK Borehole Observatories: Development, Applications and Future Perspective
Jiasong Fang1,2(), Jiangyan Li1, Li Zhang3,*()
1.Shanghai Hadal Science and Technology Engineering Research Center, Shanghai Ocean University,Shanghai 201306, China
2.Laboratory for Marine Biology and Biotechnology, Qingdao National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology, Qingdao 266071, China
3.School of Earth Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Geological Processes and Mineral Resources, China University of Geosciences (Wuhan),Wuhan 430074,China
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摘要:

过去50年深海钻探计划(DSDP)、大洋钻探计划(ODP)及综合大洋钻探计划(IODP)等国际间综合深海钻探计划的实施,使我们对地球和海洋的认识取得了显著进步。海底井控观测装置(CORK)的研发和应用是上述深海钻探计划带给我们的最宝贵财富之一。目前地球科学和海洋科学已由过去的间断性观测模式升级为现在的连续性原位观测模式,海底CORK观测系统为地球科学、海洋科学与生命科学领域的科学家对海底洋壳复杂而又相互关联的深部过程进行数秒至数十年时间尺度的研究提供了新手段和新机遇。通过对海底CORK观测系统的发展演变、在ODP和IODP航次中的使用以及在此过程中获得的科学经验和教训进行总结,对CORK系统如何应用于我国洋壳地质学、水文学、微生物学及生物地球化学过程研究提出看法。

关键词: CORK海底观测深海钻探洋壳    
Abstract:

In the past 50 years, we have witnessed remarkable progress in our understanding of the Earth and ocean system, as a result of the internationally integrated deep ocean drilling programs, the Deep Sea Drilling Program (DSDP), the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP), and the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP). One of the legacies of the deep ocean drilling programs is the development and applications of the CORK, Circulation Obviation Retrofit Kit. Earth and ocean sciences have been shifting from a traditional discontinuous, expeditionary mode toward a mode of sustained in situ observations today. The seafloor CORK observatories offer Earth, ocean and life scientists new opportunities to study multiple, interrelated deep marine subsurface processes, over time scales ranging from seconds to decades. Here, we first provided a concise examination of the development history of the CORKs, then described the first installations of ODP CORKs, the evolution of different models of CORK, and finally, summarized the scientific lessons learned in the installation and operation effort of the CORKs. In the end, we offered our perspectives on using CORKs to study geological, hydrogeological, microbiological, and biogeochemical processes in the deep marine subsurface biosphere, particularly pertaining to China’s efforts in establishing and enhancing its deep-sea and deep-biosphere research and monitoring programs.

Key words: CORK    Seafloor observatories    Oceanic crust    Deep-sea drilling.
收稿日期: 2017-10-16 出版日期: 2018-03-06
ZTFLH:  P715.5  
基金资助: *国家自然科学基金重大研究计划项目“评价嗜高压细菌在南海深部碳循环中的作用”(编号:91328208);国家自然科学基金面上项目“深海和深部生物圈革兰氏阳性嗜高细菌在脂类化合物生物合成过程中的碳同位素分馏”(编号:41673085)资助.
通讯作者: 张利     E-mail: jsfang@shou.edu.cn;lizhang@cug.edu.cn
作者简介:

作者简介:方家松(1961-),男,湖北洪湖人,教授,主要从事海洋微生物学和生物地球化学研究.E-mail:jsfang@shou.edu.cn

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方家松, 李江燕, 张利. 海底CORK观测30年:发展、应用与展望[J]. 地球科学进展, 2017, 32(12): 1297-1306.

Jiasong Fang, Jiangyan Li, Li Zhang. Thirty Years of the Seafloor CORK Borehole Observatories: Development, Applications and Future Perspective. Advances in Earth Science, 2017, 32(12): 1297-1306.

链接本文:

http://www.adearth.ac.cn/CN/10.11867/j.issn.1001-8166.2017.12.1297        http://www.adearth.ac.cn/CN/Y2017/V32/I12/1297

图1  全球海底水文地质系统活动特征示意图(据参考文献[4]修改)
图2  Carson B,Becker K和Davis E于1989年在餐巾纸上绘制的最早的海底井控观测装置概念示意图[15]
图3  CORK观测系统工程示意图(据参考文献[15]修改) (a)初始CORK;(b)改进型CORK;(c)CORK II;(d)有缆型CORK;(e)L-CORK
图4  IODP327航次在胡安·德富卡洋脊东侧进行的跨钻孔示踪实验(据参考文献[10]修改) (a)CORK观测站位置及跨钻孔示踪实验的海底地形图:示踪剂溶液注入U1362B钻孔中,利用整合在CORK观测系统中的自动取样器在U1301A,U1301B,U1362A,1026B和U1362B钻孔中对示踪剂的到达进行观测,蓝色虚线箭头指示推断流体在基底流动的趋势方向;内插图中的蓝色方框指示了主图的分布区域;主图等高间隔为10 m,红色轮廓表示基底露头;(b) 有限时间内注入示踪剂导致羽流形成的示意图;(c) 所注入示踪剂的穿透曲线;(d) U1362B钻孔示踪剂注入几何简图
图5  位于洋壳流体流动区域观测站点的CORK布放位置分布图[9] JdF. 胡安·德富卡洋脊东侧(ODP168航次、IODP301和327航次); MV. Middle Valley(ODP139航次);Van和Or. Cascadia边缘(ODP146和IODP328航次);CR. 哥斯达黎加(ODP205航次);Bar. 巴巴多斯海岭(ODP156航次);NP. North Pond(ODP174B和IODP336航次);Nan.日本南海海槽(ODP196航次、IODP319和332航次);SCh.海山岛南部(ODP195航次)
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