地球科学进展 ›› 2017, Vol. 32 ›› Issue (9): 926 -936. doi: 10.11867/j.issn.1001-8166.2017.09.0926

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焦鑫 1, 2( ), 柳益群 1, *( ), 杨晚 2, 周鼎武 1   
  1. 1.大陆动力学国家重点实验室, 西北大学地质系, 陕西 西安 710069
    2.Geology and Geophysics Program, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla 65401, MO, USA
  • 收稿日期:2017-02-13 修回日期:2017-06-25 出版日期:2017-09-20
  • 通讯作者: 柳益群 E-mail:jxin807@163.com;liu-yiqun@263.net
  • 基金资助:

Progress on Sedimentation of Subaqueous Volcanic Eruption

Xin Jiao 1, 2( ), Yiqun Liu 1, *( ), Wan Yang 2, Dingwu Zhou 1   

  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of Continental Dynamics,Department of Geology,Northwest University,Xi’an 710069,China
    2.Geology and Geophysics Program,Missouri University of Science and Technology,Rolla 65401,MO,USA
  • Received:2017-02-13 Revised:2017-06-25 Online:2017-09-20 Published:2017-09-20
  • Contact: Yiqun Liu E-mail:jxin807@163.com;liu-yiqun@263.net
  • About author:

    First author:Jiao Xin(1985-), male, Baoji City, Shaanxi Province, Ph.D student. Research areas include volcanic-hydrothermal sedimentation.E-mail:jxin807@163.com.

  • Supported by:
    Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China “Research on laminated microbial dolomite in Permian-reference with the Eastern Junggar Basin, Xinjiang” (No.41572086) and “Mantle-originated hydrothermal exhalative deposition in Permian and its mechanism, Santanghu area, NE Xinjiang”(No.41272116)


In recent years, more and more originally regarded as black oil and gas-bearing shales have been found, whose formation has close relationship with subaqueous volcanic activities, with much more fundamental research work on tight oil in China. However, our study of sedimentations of subaqueous eruption has not been well studied since their sediments are very tiny, not easy to be sampled, and extremely difficult to differentiate from mud-size clastic sediments. This paper reviewed the advances of the processes of fragmentation, transportation, and deposition of sediments originated by subaqueous eruption, on the basis of publications and research experience on some special intervals in interlaminated shales and dolostones in Permian Lucaogou Formation in Santanghu Basin. Three main features and their implications were documented. ① Minerals in those intervals were angular with a low component maturity, and some of them were shard-like, suggesting volcanic-eruptive origin. ② Intervals were laminated and thin bedded. The former had a sharp erosional base, and was internal normal graded, and showed crude orientation of elongate grains parallel to bedding plane, suggesting deposition of lateral tractive current; the latter showed messy accumulation without internal structure, suggesting deposition of dense granular flow. ③ Intervals were localized and repetitive in stratigraphy, indicating origin from episodic-pulsating volcanic activities. We preliminarily interpreted those intervals as sedimentations of subaqueous volcanic-hydrothermal activities (phreatomagmatic/hydrovolcanic deposition). Then, the relationship of intraclasts, extraclasts, and deep-derived clasts, the difference of sedimentary rocks formed by subaqueous between subaerial eruptions, and the terminology of these eruptive rocks were discussed. Finally, macro to micro scale observation, micro-texture of minerals, attaching importance on hydrothermal exhalative sedimentations, and multidisciplinary studies were suggested for future research on those rocks.


图1 水下火山喷发模式图及其沉积模式图
(a)水下火山喷发方式及其喷出物搬运、沉积模式图 (据参考文献[3,4]修改,无比例尺),其中a为火山碎屑与周围湖/海水混合后形成喷发柱,b为火山碎屑不与周围湖/海水混合保持高温并沉积,c为火山碎屑逐渐从保持高温的碎屑流中向上剥离出来,d为火山碎屑流顶部逐渐降温后,部分碎屑上浮;(b) 理想状况下水下火山喷发沉积物柱状图 (据参考文献[25]修改,无比例尺);(c)三塘湖盆地芦草沟组ML1井(3 669~3 676 m)岩心描述简化图
Fig.1 Schematic diagram of subaqueous eruption and its sedimentation
(a)Transport and deposition mode of sediments originated from subaqueous eruption (modified after references[3,4], no relative scales are implied).a.Pyroclasts mix with ambient lake/sea water to form eruption column; b. Pyroclasts do not mix with ambient water and retain heat to deposit;c.Pyroclasts liable to be stripped from thermal flow; d. Flow-top stripping. (b) Idealized stratigraphic deposit from a subaqueous volcanic eruption (modified after reference[25], No relative scales are implied). (c) Simplified interpreted petrology of core from Well ML1 (3 669~3 676 m) in Permian Lucaogou Formation in Santanghu Basin
图2 三塘湖盆地芦草沟组水下火山喷发沉积岩
(a)纹层状火山碎屑(白色)岩与白云岩(深褐色)互层,M11井,2 944.8 m;(b)为(a)中B框的放大,长英质颗粒(白色)呈棱角状,个别具鸡骨状结构(红箭头);(c)为(a)中C框的放大,火山碎屑岩(上半部)与白云岩(下半部)呈明显的剥蚀面接触(红箭头),火山碎屑岩显示正粒序;(d)方沸石质火山碎屑岩与黑色泥岩呈明显剥蚀面接触,方沸石(褐色)呈较自形粒状并被铁白云石(染色为蓝绿色)胶结。部分方沸石颗粒彼此接触构成团块。M33井,1 720.1 m;(e)白云岩质火山碎屑岩,上部呈类似火山岩的斑状结构,下部呈条带状。可见泄水结构(红色虚线)。ML1井,3 670 m;(f)为图(e)中F框的放大,条带有粗晶白云石组成。(a)~(d),(f)为单偏光显微镜薄片照片;(e)为岩心剖面照片;(c),(e)和(f)修改自参考文献[75]
Fig.2 Subaqueous eruptive sedimentary rocks in Lucaogou Formation in Santanghu Basin
(a) Interlaminated pyroclastic rock (white) and dolostone (dark brown). Well M11 at 2 944.8 m; (b) is a magnified image of the box B in (a), felsic grains (white) are angular, and some of them are shard-like (red arrow); (c) is a magnified image of the box C in (a), pyroclastic rock (upper part) and dolostone are contact with a erosional base (red arrows), and the pyroclastic rock are internal normal graded; (d) Analcime pyroclastic rock and black mud rock show erosional contaction, the analcime grains (brown) are subhedral and cemented by stained ankerite (blue-green),and some of the analcime grains are aggregated together, Well M33 at 1 720.1 m; (e) Dolomitic pyroclastic rock show suspected porphyritic texture of volcanic rock at upper part, and laminae at lower part, a vertical-subvertical veinlet (dashed red line) may have originated from lower laminated part as a gas/water escaping conduit; (f) is a magnified image of the box F in (e). The laminae are composded of coarse dolomite cyrastals. (a)~(d), (f) are plane-polarized light image; (e) is a vertical cut of a core; (c), (e) and (f) are modified after reference[75]
表1 火山来源沉积物及岩石类型粒度划分表 (据参考文献[18]修改)
Table 1 Grain-size terms for primary volcaniclastic deposits and rocks (modified after reference[18])
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