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地球科学进展  2017, Vol. 32 Issue (8): 850-858    DOI: 10.11867/j.issn.1001-8166.2017.08.0850
应用地球化学专辑     
北京市冬季、春季PM10和PM2.5中元素地球化学特征
王的, 冯海艳*, 景慧敏
中国地质大学(北京)地球科学与资源学院,北京 100083
Elements’ Geochemical Characteristics of PM10 and PM2.5 in Beijing During Winter and Spring
Wang Di, Feng Haiyan*, Jing Huimin
School of Geosciences and Resources,China University of Geosciences,Beijing 100083,China
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摘要:

使用TH1500C智能中流量(80~120 L/min)大气采样器采集了北京市区5个功能区和郊区的大气颗粒物(TSP/PM10/PM2.5)样品,利用电感耦合等离子体质谱仪和原子荧光谱仪分析测试了大气颗粒物中Al,Fe,Mn,As,Hg,Cd,和Cr等21种元素,并通过计算元素的富集因子探讨了大气颗粒物中元素的来源。结果表明,冬季大气颗粒物PM10中Cd,Cr,As,Hg的浓度比春季的分别增幅233%,306%,298%和141%;在PM2.5中的增幅分别为442%,309%,310%和256%。Cd,Cr,As,Hg和Se等元素均表现出在PM2.5中富集的趋势,并且其在冬季的浓度明显高于春季。认为冬季燃煤取暖对大气颗粒物中的污染元素贡献较大,主要贡献元素为Cd,As和Hg。

关键词: PM2.5春季冬季PM10燃煤取暖    
Abstract:

From 2012 to 2013, heavy haze frequently hit Beijing in spring and winter. The fine atmospheric particulates can be inhaled by people, and remain in the respiratory tract and lung for quite a long time. The heavy metal elements in the particles are harmful, and even carcinogenic to human bodies. Therefore, it is necessary to master the geochemical characteristics and the temporal and spatial distribution of the heavy metal elements in atmospheric particles. The atmospheric particulates (TSP/PM10/PM2.5) were collected by using TH1500C intelligent medium volume (80~120 L/min) air samplers in the five functional areas and suburbs of Beijing, respectively in January 2013 (heating period) and April 2013 (non-heating period). The five functional areas were: building materials factory area, residential area, education area, business area and recreation area, each functional area having three sampling sites, and five in suburbs. The sampling height was 1.5 m above the ground and the distance of the sampling sites to roads exceeded 50 m so as to avoid excessive impact of vehicle exhaust emissions. These samples were analyzed by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS), Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometer(ICP-OES)and Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometer (AFS), by which 21 elements including Al, Fe, Mn, As, Hg, Cd, Cr were tested. Based on the comparisons of the concentration and element content variation of atmospheric particulates of these functional areas in and after the heating period, the spatial distribution of atmospheric particulates and the influence of coal combustion on the concentration and composition of atmospheric particulates were revealed. The elements sources of atmospheric particulates were also discussed by computing the enrichment factor of the elements, providing a scientific basis for the air contaminant treatment in Beijing. The results showed that the total concentration of the 21 elements of PM10 and PM2.5 in the functional areas of Beijing in winter was higher than that in spring, the most marked among them being the business area. In winter, the concentration of pollution elements in the building materials factory area and the business area in Beijing was extremely high, and the residential area, education area, recreation area and suburbs where people live were much better, among which the education area was the best. The concentration change of particulates in suburbs was quite smaller in winter and spring than that of the urban area. It also showed that the concentrations of Cd, Cr, As and Hg in PM10 increased by 233%,306%,298%,141%,respectively and the increase in PM2.5 was 442%、309%、310%、256%, respectively. These abovementioned elements show a tendency to accumulate mainly in PM2.5 whose concentrations in winter were significantly higher than those in spring. It indicates that coal heating during winter makes great contributions to the polluting elements in atmosphere and the main polluting particulates are Cd, As and Hg.

Key words: Winter    PM2.5    Coal heating.    PM10    Spring
收稿日期: 2017-02-27 出版日期: 2017-08-20
ZTFLH:  P595  
基金资助:

中央高校基本科研业务费专项资金“基于大气颗粒物元素地球化学特征的人体健康风险评价”(编号:2-9-2012-80)资助

通讯作者: 冯海艳(1974-),女,山东济宁人,副教授,主要从事环境和生态地球化学的研究.E-mail:haiyan@cugb.edu.cn   
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引用本文:

王的, 冯海艳, 景慧敏. 北京市冬季、春季PM10和PM2.5中元素地球化学特征[J]. 地球科学进展, 2017, 32(8): 850-858.

Wang Di, Feng Haiyan, Jing Huimin. Elements’ Geochemical Characteristics of PM10 and PM2.5 in Beijing During Winter and Spring. Advances in Earth Science, 2017, 32(8): 850-858.

链接本文:

http://www.adearth.ac.cn/CN/10.11867/j.issn.1001-8166.2017.08.0850        http://www.adearth.ac.cn/CN/Y2017/V32/I8/850

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