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地球科学进展  2019, Vol. 34 Issue (6): 640-649    DOI: 10.11867/j.issn.1001-8166.2019.06.0640
发展战略论坛     
21世纪中国的城市化特点及其生态环境挑战
邱国玉1(),张晓楠1,2()
1. 北京大学环境与能源学院,广东 深圳 518055
2. 环境保护部环境规划院,北京 100012
China's Urbanization and Its Ecological Environment Challenges in the 21st Century
Guoyu Qiu1(),Xiaonan Zhang1,2()
1. School of Environment and Energy, Peking University, Shenzhen 518055, China
2. Chinese Academy of Environmental Planning, Beijing 100012, China
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摘要:

城市化是世界范围的历史进程。中国的城市化虽然起步较晚,但是由于速度快、规模大、资源能源消耗高,从而带来一系列水环境和热环境问题。系统梳理了在全球气候变化和城市化的双重压力下,中国城市面临的水资源短缺与水污染、日益严重的城市热岛和生态水文灾害等生态环境挑战,提出要以城市生态水文学的理论和手段,解决城市生态环境问题,提升中国的城市化质量,实现宜居城市。

关键词: 城市生态城市热岛城市生态水文宜居城市    
Abstract:

Urbanization is a worldwide historical process. Although China's urbanization started late, it is fast, large in scale, high in resource and energy consumption, and leads to a series of water and thermal environment problems. This paper systematically sorted out the ecological environment challenges faced by Chinese cities under the dual pressures of global climate change and urbanization, such as water shortages and water pollution, increasingly serious urban heat island issues and ecological hydrological disasters. It proposed to solve the problem of urban ecological environment with the theory and means of urban ecohydrology, improve the quality of urbanization in China, and realize livable cities.

Key words: Urban ecology    Urban Heat Island (UHI)    Urban Ecohydrology    Livable city.
收稿日期: 2019-01-04 出版日期: 2019-07-05
ZTFLH:  P96  
基金资助: 中国科学院学部学科发展战略研究项目“中国生态水文学学科发展战略”(2017DXA);深圳市基础研究项目“飞行智能环境监测机器人研究”(JCYJ20180504165440088)
通讯作者: 张晓楠     E-mail: qiugy@pkusz.edu.cn;xnzhang99@163.com
作者简介: 邱国玉(1963-),男,内蒙古阿拉善人,教授,主要从事环境与能源信息、城市水文水资源、生态水文方面的研究.E-mail:qiugy@pkusz.edu.cn
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引用本文:

邱国玉,张晓楠. 21世纪中国的城市化特点及其生态环境挑战[J]. 地球科学进展, 2019, 34(6): 640-649.

Guoyu Qiu,Xiaonan Zhang. China's Urbanization and Its Ecological Environment Challenges in the 21st Century. Advances in Earth Science, 2019, 34(6): 640-649.

链接本文:

http://www.adearth.ac.cn/CN/10.11867/j.issn.1001-8166.2019.06.0640        http://www.adearth.ac.cn/CN/Y2019/V34/I6/640

图1   1978—2016年城市建成区面积和城区人口[5]
城市排名 城市名称 城市人口/万 建成区面积/km2
1 重庆 2 907.38 1 350.66
2 上海 2 419.70 998.75
3 北京 2 172.90 1 419.66
4 广州 1 759.49 1 249.11
5 天津 1 360.43 1 007.91
6 深圳 1 190.84 923.25
7 武汉 1 121.62 585.61
8 成都 940.54 837.27
9 杭州 899.96 541.38
10 郑州 748.27 422.35
11 南京 703.05 773.79
12 佛山 654.26 158.91
13 沈阳 649.73 588.26
14 西安 629.24 517.74
15 东莞 628.65 958.86
16 哈尔滨 620.17 435.28
17 汕头 582.00 257.66
18 南宁 539.78 310.47
19 青岛 525.75 599.32
20 厦门 520.08 334.64
表1   2016年中国500万以上人口城市排名
图2  中国城市地下水水质状况[15]
城市 时间 年均热岛强度/ 上升率/(℃/10a) 参考文献
北京:六环区域内 1991—2011年 5.73 ~ 9.27 1.35 [47]
上海 1961—2013年 1.10 ~ 1.33 0.15 ~ 0.17 [48]
重庆 2004—2013年 1.80 ~ 3.11 [49]
重庆 1961—2016年 0.07 [50]
成都 2004—2013年 3.30 ~ 4.32 [49]
郑州 2007—2016年 0.76 ~ 1.59 0.50 [51]
兰州 1960s至2000s 0.28 [52]
铁岭 1980—2009年 1.55 ~ 2.15 [53]
丹东 1980—2009年 1.00 ~ 1.45 [53]
鞍山 1980—2009年 0.87 ~ 1.67 0.18 [53]
锦州 1980—2009年 0.80 ~ 1.65 [53]
朝阳 1980—2009年 0.72 ~ 1.48 0.18 [53]
大连 1980—2009年 0.57 ~ 1.03 0.02 [53]
表2  中国各城市热岛强度
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