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地球科学进展  2008, Vol. 23 Issue (11): 1124-1129    DOI: 10.11867/j.issn.1001-8166.2008.11.1124
综述与评述     
农地利用变化假说与相关的环境效应命题
李秀彬
中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所,北京 100101
Theoretical Hypotheses about Agricultural Land Use Changes and the Relevant Propositions about Environmental Impacts
Li Xiubin
Institute of Geographical Sciences and Natural Resources Research,Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing 100101,China
 全文: PDF(1008 KB)  
摘要:

将用途转移和集约度升降这两种类型的土地利用变化整合在一个过程中,解释变化机制的理论,有古典经济学的地租理论,还有若干理论性假说。这些假说又常常与一些土地利用的环境效应命题联系在一起,扩充为解释人地关系的假说。综述了解释农地利用变化的四大假说(包括基于马尔萨斯人口论的土地面积持续扩张假说、博斯鲁普的需求诱发型集约化假说、吉尔茨的集约度弹性假说、土地利用粗放化假说)和农地利用环境效应的三大命题(包括农地面积扩张造成土地退化、优质土地的集约化间接促使生态脆弱地区环境改善、农地利用粗放化和弃耕促使环境和生态恢复),以及围绕这些假说和命题的争论和实证研究,旨在为土地利用变化的情景构建、模型模拟及愿景设计提供学术依据。

关键词: 土地利用变化理论假说集约化粗放化边际化    
Abstract: Besides the classical land rent theory, a few theoretical hypotheses exist in the explanation of agricultural land use changes in terms of both areal extent and intensity. Any change in land use has its impact on environment and ecology. And these land use hypotheses are usually extended to general hypotheses about human-land relations while environmental impacts of land use changes are taken into account. This paper reviews theoretical hypotheses about agricultural land use changes. These include ①compelled areal expansion hypothesis based on Malthus′s demographic theory; ②Boserup′s induced intensification hypothesis; ③Geetz′s elastic intensity hypothesis and ④Brookfield′s disintensification hypothesis. Some relevant propositions about environmental impacts of agricultural land use changes are also discussed. They are: ①farmland expansion results in land degradation; ②agricultural intensification of fertile lands indirectly helps improve ecology in fragile environments and ③environment and ecology benefit from agricultural extensification and farmland abandonment. Empirical evidences from both domestic and foreign sources related to the four hypotheses and three propositions are reviewed and discussed. It is concluded that application of the four hypotheses and three propositions face severe limitations in the explanation of agricultural land use changes and their environmental impacts in different context. These limitations, however, cannot offset their merits as bases for vision building and scenario analysis in the process of land use planning.
Key words: Land use change    Theoretical hypothesis    Intensification    Disintensification    Marginalization.
收稿日期: 2008-09-18 出版日期: 2008-11-10
:  F301.24  
基金资助:

科技部支撑计划项目“区域土地资源安全保障与调控关键技术研究”(编号:2006BAB15B02)资助.

通讯作者: 李秀彬      E-mail: lixb@igsnrr.ac.cn
作者简介: 李秀彬(1962-),男,河北固安人,研究员,主要从事土地利用和土地覆被变化研究.E-mail:lixb@igsnrr.ac.cn
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引用本文:

李秀彬. 农地利用变化假说与相关的环境效应命题[J]. 地球科学进展, 2008, 23(11): 1124-1129.

Li Xiubin. Theoretical Hypotheses about Agricultural Land Use Changes and the Relevant Propositions about Environmental Impacts. Advances in Earth Science, 2008, 23(11): 1124-1129.

链接本文:

http://www.adearth.ac.cn/CN/10.11867/j.issn.1001-8166.2008.11.1124        http://www.adearth.ac.cn/CN/Y2008/V23/I11/1124

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