地球科学进展 ›› 2016, Vol. 31 ›› Issue (9): 907 -918. doi: 10.11867/j.issn.1001-8166.2016.09.0907

综述与评述 上一篇    下一篇

自然灾害中的文化维度研究综述
孙磊, 苏桂武 *   
  1. 中国地震局地质研究所地震应急与减灾研究室,北京 100029
  • 收稿日期:2016-07-18 出版日期:2016-09-20
  • 通讯作者: 苏桂武(1969-),男,河北丰宁人,研究员,主要从事自然灾害的人文社会维度问题、灾害和风险研究的多学科综合方法、社区灾害治理和地方综合减灾、防灾减灾宣传教育等方面的研究.E-mail:suguiwu@ies.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金项目“地震灾害认知和响应行为的区域及地方差异——基于新近震例的实证研究”(编号:40971274); 国家自然科学基金国际(地区)合作与交流项目“鄂尔多斯地区地震灾害风险的参与式评估与治理”(编号:41661134013)资助

Research on Cultural Dimension of Natural Disaster:A Literature Review

Sun Lei, Su Guiwu *   

  1. Division of Earthquake Emergency Response and Disaster Reduction, Institute of Geology, China Earthquake Administration, Beijing 100029, China
  • Received:2016-07-18 Online:2016-09-20 Published:2016-09-20

文化是人类社会特有的现象,是考察和理解社会的重要维度。文化影响人们看待事物的角度、实践中的行为选择与认同以及彼此间互动的方式,因而是人们认识和应对灾害的重要背景。20世纪60年代以来,灾害和防灾减灾中的文化维度问题,逐渐被灾害研究和减灾实践者所关注。经过半个多世纪的积累与发展,文化维度上的实证/实例分析与理论探索,目前已涉及到了灾害和防灾减灾实践的许多方面。拟基于文化的狭义理解范畴,从灾害认知和灾害应对2个层面梳理自然灾害中的文化维度研究进展与趋势,分析相应的灾害研究与减灾实践启示。

Culture provides an important perspective to understand society. It is one of the key factors that impact how people behave themselves, interact with one another, view the world; what they believe and value. Therefore, a good understanding of public disaster awareness and disaster coping is impossible without taking their culture context into consideration. Since the 1960s, cultural dimension in disaster issues and/or disaster reduction practices has been attracting increasingly attention; many empirical or theoretical explorations have been reported. This review aims to give an overview of research progresses on how culture impacts public awareness and coping of disasters, and analyze the corresponding implications for disaster research and disaster reduction practice. This review summarizes that: ①There is unanimous consensus on public awareness and coping of disaster, which are affected by their culture context. While the knowledge about the ways and degree of impact is still limited, further research is warranted. In addition, more systematic and in-depth studies conducted from cross-cultural perspectives are needed to design to further explore the origins of variance in public disaster awareness and coping, and to what extent from cultural differences. ②Research on public awareness of disaster, emergency response and recovery indicated that culture might have double-side impacts on disaster management—sometimes cultural factors such as value, norm, custom and belief might lead to people more vulnerable than the others, even could be the root causes, but they could also be the source of people’s resilience to disaster in some cases. How to identify those positive and negative impacts, then develop cultural-oriented disaster management policy is a challenge issue, which need special attention. ③There is an increasing acknowledgement that local knowledge and disaster subculture could play an important role in public disaster coping, while the lacking of the awareness of the value of local knowledge, the change of lifestyle, and the impact from external culture pose a threat to the inheritance of some local, traditional disaster coping strategies. So exploring how to conserve, protect, identify, document them, then combine them with modern science and technology should and will be the focus of relevant studies. On the bases of these summarizations, in terms of cultural dimension of natural disaster research in China, systematic and in-depth studies are needed to explore how Chinese culture affects public disaster awareness and coping, what cultural resources can be used in disaster (risk) reduction and for building and enhancing disaster resilience, and how to use them.

中图分类号: 

[1] Ma Zongjin, Gao Qinghua. On the severity of vicious circle of population-resources-environment-disaster and the new stage of disaster reduction[J]. Journal of Natural Disasters ,1992, 1(1): 12-18.[马宗晋, 高庆华. 论人口—资源—环境—灾害恶性循环的严重性与减灾工作[J]. 自然灾害学报,1992, 1(1): 12-18.]
[2] Oliver-Smith A, Hoffman S M. Catastrophe & Culture: The Anthropology of Disaster[M]. Santa Fe and Oxford: School of American Research Press, 2002.
[3] Ogburn W F. Cultural lag as theory[J]. Sociology and Social Research , 1957, 41(3):167-174.
[4] Huang Shuping, Gong Peihua. Method and Theory in Cultural Anthropology[M]. Guangzhou: Guangdong Higher Education Press, 2013.[黄淑娉, 龚佩华. 文化人类学理论方法研究[M]. 广州: 广东高等教育出版社, 2013.]
[5] The Contemporary Chinese Dictionary (21th Century Version)[Z]. Changchun: Jilin University Press and Jilin Audio-Virsual Press, 2003.[现代汉语词典21世纪推荐版[Z]. 长春: 吉林大学出版社,吉林音像出版社, 2003.]
[6] Tylor E B. The Origins of Culture[M]. New York: Harper and Brothers Publishers,1958.
[7] UN-ISDR. 2009 UNISDR Terminology on Disaster Risk Reduction[M]. Geneva: United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction(UN-ISDR ), 2009.
[8] Lindell M K, Arlikatti S, Prater C S. Why people do what they do to protect against earthquake risk: Perceptions of hazard adjustment attributes[J]. Risk Analysis ,2009, 29(8):1 072-1 088.
[9] Eiser J R, Bostrom A, Burton I, et al . Risk interpretation and action: A conceptual framework for responses to natural hazards[J]. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction , 2012, 1:5-16.
[10] Su Guiwu, Ma Zongjin, Wang Ruojia, et al . General features and their disaster-reduction education implications of the earthquake disaster cognition and responses of the social public in Ms 8.0 Wenchuan earthquake-hit area: A case study from Deyang prefecture-level city, Sichuan Province[J]. Seismology and Geology ,2008, 30(4): 877-894.[苏桂武,马宗晋,王若嘉,等. 汶川地震灾区民众认知与响应地震灾害的特点及其减灾宣教意义——以四川省德阳市为例[J].地震地质,2008, 30(4): 877-894.]
[11] NRC (National Research Council) Committee on Disaster Research in the Social Sciences: Future Challenges Opportunities. Facing Hazards and Disasters: Understanding Human Dimensions[M]. Washington DC: National Academies Press, 2006.
[12] Ding Xianyong. Disaster in Ming and Qing dynasties and the formation of folk beliefs[J]. Social Science Journal ,2002,(2):116-119.[丁贤勇. 明清灾害与民间信仰的形成——以江南市镇为例[J]. 社会科学辑刊,2002,(2):116-119.]
[13] Smits G. Conduits of power: What the origins of Japan’s earthquake catfish reveal about religious geography[J]. Japan Review , 2012, (24):41-65.
[14] Qi Wenhua, Su Guiwu, Wei Benyong, et al . Damage characteristics of the Ms 7.1 Yushu Qinghai earthquake[J]. Seismology and Geology ,2011, 33(3): 533-548.[齐文华, 苏桂武, 魏本勇, 等. 2010年青海玉树ms7.1地震灾害的综合特征[J]. 地震地质,2011, 33(3): 533-548.]
[15] Wu Huanjie, Su Guiwu, Wei Benyong, et al . Descriptive statistical features of earthquake disaster awareness of the elementary school student in Yushu area, Qinghai Province, China[J]. Seismology and Geology ,2012, 34(4): 835-849.[仵焕杰, 苏桂武, 魏本勇, 等. 青海玉树地区小学生认知地震灾害现状的描述统计特点[J]. 地震地质,2012, 34(4): 835-849.]
[16] Paradise T R. Perception of earthquake risk in Agadir, Morocco: A case study from a muslim community[J]. Environmental Hazards , 2005, 6(3): 167-180.
[17] Paul S K, Routray J K. An analysis of the causes of non-responses to cyclone warnings and the use of indigenous knowledge for cyclone forecasting in Bangladesh[M]∥Filho W L, ed. Climate Change and Disaster Risk Management. Berlin:Springer-Verlag, 2012: 15-39.
[18] Schmuck H. “An act of Allah”: Religious explanations for floods in bangladesh as survival strategy[J]. International Journal of Mass Emergencies and Disasters , 2000, 18(1): 85-95.
[19] Hutton D, Haque C E. Patterns of coping and adaptation among erosion-induced displacees in bangladesh: Implications for hazard analysis and mitigation[J]. Natural Hazards , 2003, 29(3): 405-421.
[20] Cashman K V, Cronin S J. Welcoming a monster to the world: Myths, oral tradition, and modern societal response to volcanic disasters[J]. Journal of Volcanology & Geothermal Research , 2008, 176(3): 407-418.
[21] Tatsuhiko Sakurai, Yu Ping, Zhao Yanmin. The folk representation of disaster—From “memory” to “record” and to “representation”[J]. Cultural Heritage ,2008,(3): 76-87.[樱井龙彦, 虞萍, 赵彦民. 灾害的民俗表象——从“记忆”到“记录”再到“表现”[J]. 文化遗产, 2008,(3): 76-87.]
[22] Ye Hong. Local Knowledge and Disaster Risk Reduction in Areas Inhabited by the Minority Nationalities[D]. Chengdu:Southwest University for Nationalities, 2012.[叶宏. 地方性知识与民族地区的防灾减灾[D].成都:西南民族大学, 2012.]
[23] Slovic P. Perception of risk[J]. Science , 1987, 236(4 799): 280-285.
[24] Douglas M. Natural Symbols: Explorations in Cosmology[M]. London: Barrie and Rockliff, 1970.
[25] Thompson M, Ellis R, Wildavsky A B. Cultural Theory[M]. Boulder Colorado:Westview Press, 1990.
[26] Boulder, Colorado: Boulder, Colorado:Douglas M. Cultural Bias[M]. London: Royal Anthropological Institute, 1978.
[27] Douglas M T, Wildavsky A B. Risk and Culture: An Essay on the Selection of Technical and Environmental Dangers[M].Berkeley:University of California Press, 1982.
[28] Mamadouh V. Grid-group cultural theory: An introduction[J]. Geojournal , 1999, 47: 395-409.
[29] Wildavsky A, Dake K. Theories of Risk Perception: Who Fears What and Why?[M].Camberidge:The MIT Press, 1990:41-60.
[30] Brenot J, Bonnefous S, Marris C. Testing the cultural theory of risk in France[J]. Risk Analysis , 1998, 18(6): 729-739.
[31] Sjöberg L. World views, political attitudes and risk perception[J]. Risk , 1998, 9:137-152.
[32] Sjöberg L. Factors in risk perception[J]. Risk Analysis , 2000, 20(1): 1-12.
[33] Slovic P, Layman M, Kraus N, et al . Perceived risk, stigma, and potential economic impacts of a high-level nuclear waste repository in Nevada[J]. Risk Analysis , 1991, 11(4): 683-696.
[34] Peters E, Slovic P. The role of affect and worldviews as orienting dispositions in the perception and acceptance of nuclear power[J]. Journal of Applied Social Psychology , 1996, 26(16): 1 427-1 453.
[35] Kahan D M, Jenkinssmith H C, Braman D. Cultural cognition of scientific consensus[J]. Journal of Risk Research , 2010, 14(2):147-174.
[36] Ng R, Rayner S. Integrating psychometric and cultural theory approaches to formulate an alternative measure of risk perception[J]. Innovation-The European Journal of Social Science Research , 2010, 23(2): 85-100.
[37] Kasperson R E, Renn O, Slovic P, et al . The social amplification of risk: A conceptual framework[J]. Risk Analysis , 1988, 8(2): 177-187.
[38] Renn O, Burns W J, Kasperson J X, et al . The social amplification of risk: Theoretical foundations and empirical applications[J]. Journal of Social Issues , 1992, 48(4):137-160.
[39] Kasperson J X, Kasperson R E, Pidgeon N, et al . The social amplification of risk: Assessing fifteen years of research and theory[M]∥Pidgeon N, Kasperson J X, Slovic P, eds. The Social Amplification of Risk.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press, 2003:13-46.
[40] Palmer C. Risk perception: Another look at the ‘white male’ effect[J]. Health , Risk & Society , 2010, 5(1): 71-83.
[41] Olofsson A, Rashid S. The white (male) effect and risk perception: Can equality make a difference?[J]. Risk Anaysis , 2011, 31(6): 1 016-1 032.
[42] Finucane M L, Slovic P, Mertz C K, et al . Gender, race, and perceived risk: The white male’ effect[J]. Health , Risk & Society , 2000, 2(2): 159-172.
[43] Kahan D M, Braman D, Gastil J, et al . Culture and identity—Protective cognition: Explaining the white-male effect in risk perception[J]. Journal of Empirical Legal Studies , 2007, 4(3): 465-505.
[44] Lindell M K, Whitney D J. Correlates of household seismic hazard adjustment adoption[J]. Risk Analysis , 2000, 20(1): 13-25.
[45] Palm R. Urban earthquake hazards: The impacts of culture on perceived risk and response in the USA and Japan[J]. Applied Geography , 1998, 18(1): 35-46.
[46] Paton D, Bajek R, Okada N, et al . Predicting community earthquake preparedness: A cross-cultural comparison of Japan and New Zealand[J]. Natural Hazards , 2010, 54(3): 765-781.
[47] Turner R H, Nigg J M, Paz D H, et al . Community Response to Earthquake Threat in Southern California[M]. Los Angeles:Institute for Social Science Research, University of California, 1980.
[48] Blanchard-Boehm D. Risk Communication in Southern California: Ethnic and Gender Response to 1995 Revised, Upgraded Earthquake Probabilities[M]. Boulder Colorado:Natural Hazards Center, 1997.
[49] Carter-Pokras O, Zambrana R E, Mora S E, et al . Emergency preparedness: Knowledge and perceptions of latin American immigrants[J]. Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved , 2007, 18(2): 465-481.
[50] Fothergill A, Maestas E G, Darlington J D. Race, ethnicity and disasters in the United States: A review of the literature[J]. Disasters , 1999, 23(2): 156-173.
[51] Peguero A A. Latino disaster vulnerability the dissemination of hurricane mitigation information among florida’s homeowners[J]. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences , 2006, 28(1): 5-22.
[52] Abea T, Wiwattanapantuwonga J, Hondab A. Dark, cold and hungry, but full of mutual trust: Manners among the 2011 Great East Japan earthquake victims[J]. Psychology in Russia : State of the Art , 2014, 7(1): 4-13.
[53] Kaku M, Chen J. A tale of two cultures[J]. New Oriental English , 2011, (6): 42-45.
[54] Gamburd M R, Mcgilvray D B. Sri lanka’s post-tsunami recovery: Cultural traditions, social structures and power struggles[J]. Anthropology News , 2010, 51(7): 9-11.
[55] Howell P. Indigenous Early Warning Indicators of Cyclones: Potential Application in Coastal Bangladesh[M]. London: Benfield Greig Hazard Research Centre, 2003.
[56] Zhang Hao. Disaster, ethics and culture research based on the wenchuan earthquake[J]. Magnificant Writing ,2013, (2): 10.[张灏. 基于汶川地震的启示的灾害、伦理与文化研究[J]. 华章,2013, (2):10.]
[57] Bhandari R B. Ananlysis of Social Roles and Impacts of Urban Rituals Events with Reference to Building Capacity to Cope with Disasters[D].Kyoto:Kyoto University, 2010.
[58] Li Yongxiang. Anthropological Research on Landslide Disasters[M]. Beijing: Intellectual Property Publishing House, 2012.[李永祥. 泥石流灾害的人类学研究[M]. 北京: 知识产权出版社, 2012.]
[59] Morgan P. Towards a developmental theory of place attachment[J]. Journal of Environmental Psychology , 2010, 30(1): 11-22.
[60] Wu Yanhong. Research on Community Disaster Coping Capacities in Ethnic Minority Areas: From A Perspective of Anthropology[D]. Beijing:Minzu University of China, 2015.[吴燕红. 人类学视角下的少数民族社区应灾能力研究[D].北京:中央民族大学, 2015.]
[61] Gaillard J C. Alternative paradigms of volcanic risk perception: The case of mt. Pinatubo in the philippines[J]. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research , 2008, 172(3): 315-328.
[62] Marsella A J, Christopher M A. Ethnocultural considerations in disasters: An overview of research, issues, and directions[J]. Psychiatric Clinics of North America , 2004, 27(3): 521-539.
[63] Chen Zhenggen, Zhang Yuqing, Liu Yin, et al . Ethnicity, culture,and disaster response: Identifying and explaining ethnic differences in PTSD six months after sichuan earthquake in China[J]. Chinese Journal of Clinical Psychology ,2011,19(4):503-507,511.[陈正根, 张雨青, 刘寅, 等. 不同民族创伤后应激反应模式比较的质性研究——汶川地震后对羌汉幸存者的访谈分析[J]. 中国临床心理学杂志,2011,19(4):503-507,511.]
[64] Liu Yin, Chen Zhenggen, Zhang Yuqing, et al . Ethnic differences of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder[J]. Advances in Psychological Science ,2011, 19(10):1 511-1 517.[刘寅, 陈正根, 张雨青, 等. 创伤后应激障碍的民族差异问题[J]. 心理科学进展,2011, 19(10):1 511-1 517.]
[65] Lan Liyan. Psychological adjustment as a function of tibetan buddhism and post-disaster psychological intervention[J]. Religious study ,2011,(3):269-273.[蓝李焰. 论藏传佛教心理调节功能与灾后心理危机干预[J]. 宗教学研究,2011,(3):269-273.]
[66] Smith B W, Pargament K I, Brant C, et al . Noah revisited: Religious coping by church members and the impact of the 1993 midwest flood[J]. Journal of Community Psychology , 2000, 28(2): 169-186.
[67] Chan C S, Rhodes J E, Pérez J E. A prospective study of religiousness and psychological distress among female survivors of Hurricanes Katrina and rita[J]. American Journal of Community Psychology , 2012, 49(1/2): 168-181.
[68] Chan C S, Rhodes J E. Religious coping, posttraumatic stress, psychological distress, and posttraumatic growth among female survivors four years after Hurricane Katrina[J]. Journal of Trauma Stress , 2013, 26(2): 257-265.
[69] Tu Yangjun, Guo Yongyu. Posttraumatic growth: Conception, influential factors and relationships with mental health[J]. Advances in Psychological Science ,2010, 18(1): 114-122.[涂阳军, 郭永玉. 创伤后成长:概念、影响因素、与心理健康的关系[J]. 心理科学进展,2010, 18(1): 114-122.]
[70] Moore H E, Bates F L.And the Winds Blew[M].Austin, Tex:Hogg Foundation for Mental Health, 1964.
[71] Anderson W A. Some observations on a disaster subculture: The organizational response of cincinnati, ohio, to the 1964 flood[G]∥Disaster Research Center Research Note #6.Columbus, Ohio:Disaster Resarch Center,The Ohio State University,1965:1-25.
[72] Wenger D E, Weller J M. Some observations on the concept of disaster subculture[G]∥Disaster Resarch Center Working Paper #48.Columbus, Ohio:Disaster Resarch Center, The Ohio State University, 1972:1-7.
[73] Wenger D E, Weller J M. Disaster subcultures: The cultural residues of community disasters[G]∥Disaster Research Center Preliminary Paper #9.Delaware: Disaster Research Center, University of Delaware, 1973:1-17.
[74] Wang Xiaokui. A comparison of the construction of the memory space of earthquakes in Japan and China[J]. Journal of Yunan Normal Universtiy ( Philosophy and Social Science ),2013, 45(6):47-55.[王晓葵. 灾害文化的中日比较——以地震灾害记忆空间构建为例[J]. 云南师范大学学报:哲学社会科学版,2013, 45(6):47-55.]
[75] Warner J, Engel K. Disaster culture matters[J]. Ambiente & Sociedade , 2014, 17(4): 1-8.
[76] Dekens J. Local Knowledge for Disaster Preparedness: A Literature Review[M].Kathmandu,Nepcll:International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD), 2007.
[77] Tian Yipeng. The possibility and prospect of regional sociology: Centered on the study of “overcrowding-undercrowding” issue of urban and rural areas of postwar Japan[J]. Sociological Studies ,2012,(5):184-203.[田毅鹏. 地域社会学:何以可能? 何以可为?——以战后日本城乡“过密—过疏”问题研究为中心[J]. 社会学研究,2012,(5):184-203.]
[78] Shaw R, Takeuchi Y, Uy N, et al . Indigenous Knowledge for Disaster Risk Reduction: Policy Note[R].Bangkok:UNISDR Asia and the Pacific, 2009.
[79] Kelman I, Mercer J, Gaillard J. Indigenous knowledge and disaster risk reduction[J]. Geography , 2012, 97(1):12-21.
[80] Hayashi H, Shigekawa K. Producing disaster ethnography for the development of disaster ethnology[C]∥Annual Conference of Social Safety Science,1997: 376-379.
[81] Tanaka S, Hayashi H. Development of disaster ethnography for establishing disaster ethnology[C]∥Institute of Social Safety Science, 1998:14-19.
[82] Tatsuhiko Sakurai, Chen Aiguo. Advocate disaster folklore research[J]. Forum on Folk Culture ,2008,(6):62-70.[樱井龙彦, 陈爱国. 灾害民俗学的提倡[J]. 民间文化论坛,2005,(6): 62-70.]
[83] Syafwina. Recognizing indigenous knowledge for disaster management: Smong, early warning system from simeulue island, Aceh[J]. Procedia Environmental Sciences , 2014, 20:573-582,doi:10.1016/j.proenv.2014.03.070.
[84] Wu Guochun. A comparison of the disaster culture in Japan and China[J]. Disaster Reduction in China , 2012,(80):37-39.[伍国春. 中日灾害文化对比[J]. 中国减灾,2012,(80): 37-39.]
[85] Esteban M, Tsimopoulou V, Shibayama T, et al . Analysis of tsunami culture in countries affected by recent tsunamis[J]. Procedia Environmental Sciences , 2013, 17:693-702,doi:10.1016/j.proenv.2013.02.086.
[86] Zhang Bingcai, Zhang Jie. A preliminary discussion on the earthquake culture of Bai Minority[J]. Recent Developments in World Seismology ,2004, (4): 25-30.[张炳才, 张洁. 白族地震文化刍议[J]. 国际地震动态,2004, (4): 25-30.]
[87] Mercer J, Kelman I, Taranis L, et al . Framework for integrating indigenous and scientific knowledge for disaster risk reduction[J]. Disasters , 2010, 34(1): 214-239.
[88] Gaillard J C, Clavé E, Vibert O, et al . Ethnic groups’ response to the 26 december 2004 earthquake and tsunami in Aceh, Indonesia[J]. Natural Hazards , 2008, 47(1): 17-38.
[89] Marín A, Gelcich S, Araya G, et al . The 2010 tsunami in Chile: Devastation and survival of coastal small-scale fishing communities[J]. Marine Policy , 2010, 34(6): 1 381-1 384.
[90] Mcadoo B G, Moore A, Baumwoll J. Indigenous knowledge and the near field population response during the 2007 Solomon Islands tsunami[J]. Natural Hazards , 2008, 48(1): 73-82.
[91] Lin A S. Shou-jing versus talk therapy: Why counseling and not shou-jing?[J]. Cross-Cultural Psychology Bulletin , 2000,34(3):10-15.
[92] IDNHR. 1994, Yokohama strategy and plan of action for a safer world[EB/OL]. (2015-14-18)[2015-05-10].http:∥www.unisdr.org/files/31468_programmeforumproceedings.pdf.
[93] UN-ISDR. Hyogo framework for action 2005-2015[EB/OL], (2005-03-16)[2015-05-10].http:∥www.unisdr.org/we/inform/publications/1037.
[94] UN-ISDR. 2015, Sendai framework for disaster risk reduction 2015-2030[EB/OL].(2015-14-03)[2015-05-10].http://www.wcdrr.org/preparatory/post 2015.
[95] Renn O, Sellke P. Risk, society and policy making: Risk governance in a complex world[J]. International Journal of Performability Engineering , 2011, 7(4): 349-366.
[96] Tierney K. Disaster governance: Social, political, and economic dimensions[J]. Annual Review of Environment and Resources , 2012, 37(1):341-363.
[97] De Le L, Gaillard J C, Friesen W. Academics doing participatory disaster research: How participatory is it?[J]. Environmental Hazards , 2015, 14(1): 1-15.
[98] Shi Peijun, Kong Feng, Ye Qian, et al . Disaster risk science development and disaster risk reduction using science and technology[J]. Advances in Earth Science ,2014, 29(11):1 205-1 211.[史培军, 孔锋, 叶谦, 等. 灾害风险科学发展与科技减灾[J]. 地球科学进展, 2014, 29(11):1 205-1 211.]
[99] Liang Jiajing. The ttraditional wisdom and experience of the black-cloth Zhuang’s belief and ceremony to the drought[J]. Guide of Science & Education ,2012,(23):253-254.[梁家靖. 黑衣壮信仰仪式中应对旱灾的传统智慧与经验[J]. 科教导刊旬刊,2012,(23):253-254.]
[100] Su Guiwu, Ma Zongjin, Zhu Lin, et al . Research on changes of regional macroscopic vulnerability to earthquake disasters in Beijing-Tianjin-Tangshan region[J]. Journal of Catastrophology ,2010, 25(2):1-12.[苏桂武, 马宗晋, 朱林, 等. 京津唐地区地震灾害区域宏观脆弱性变化研究[J]. 灾害学,2010, 25(2): 1-12.]

[1] 熊永兰, 张志强, 刘志辉, 程国栋. 基于科学知识图谱的水文化变迁研究方法探析[J]. 地球科学进展, 2014, 29(1): 92-103.
[2] 宫进忠. 华北地区人类文化遗址的地球化学环境演变[J]. 地球科学进展, 2012, 27(10): 1153-1160.
[3] 史威,李世杰,马春梅,朱诚,张蕾. 中坝和中堡岛遗址文化堆积连续性的自然及人类活动因素[J]. 地球科学进展, 2010, 25(5): 523-532.
[4] 陈传康. 城市旅游开发规划研究进展评述[J]. 地球科学进展, 1996, 11(5): 508-512.
阅读次数
全文


摘要