Please wait a minute...
img img
地球科学进展  2010, Vol. 25 Issue (5): 543-551    DOI: 10.11867/j.issn.1001-8166.2010.05.0543
1.中国科学院动物研究所动物生态与保护生物学重点实验室,北京  100101;
2.宿州学院化学与生命科学系,安徽  宿州  234000
The Progress in Environmental Distributions and Toxicological Effects of Perfluoroalkyl Acids
Fang Xuemei1,2,Wang Jianshe1,Dai Jiayin1*
1. Key Laboratory of Animal Ecology and Conservation Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing  100101, China;
2.Department of Chemistry and Life Science, Suzhou College, Suzhou  234000, China
 全文: PDF(1140 KB)  

 全氟类有机化合物(Perfluorinated compounds,PFCs)广泛应用于工业和民用产品,该类化合物具有高能量的C-F共价键,难以被水解、光解、微生物降解及动物体代谢,具有持久性、生物累积性、毒性以及长距离迁移等特性,是一类新型持久性有机污染物。目前,从世界各地采集的环境样品、野生动物血清、组织样品以及人类体内都检测到了多种PFCs。该类污染物对生态环境和人体健康带来的影响受到全社会的普遍关注,已成为环境科学和生态毒理学研究的热点课题之一。本文综述了全氟类化合物在各类环境介质中的分布、在生物体内的累积、在生物体内的转化与代谢过程及其毒理学效应,并对PFCs的毒性作用机制进行初步分析,对目前存在的问题及今后的研究方向进行了讨论和展望,以期为该类化合物的环境污染及风险评估提供相应参考。

关键词: 全氟类化合物PFOAPFOS环境污染毒理学效应    

Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) are widely used in industry and consumer products. The high-energy carbon-fluorine (C-F) bond renders these compounds resistant to hydrolysis, photolysis, microbial degradation, as well as metabolism by animals and makes them a new kind of persistent organic compound. PFCs have been detected in various environmental samples and in tissues or blood from human population and wildlife in recent years. Concern about PFCs in recent years is growing for their bioaccumulation and potentially health risk and they have become research hotspots in the field of environmental, ecotoxicological science, and etc. This review provides an overview of the current pollution conditions of perfluoroalkyl acids in abiotic and biotic matrices, the transform and metabolism of these compounds in organism and the recent advances in toxicological studies of PFCs. The present existing problems and the trends of future research on PFCs are also discussed in this review to provide more information for the further study of these compounds.

Key words: Perfluoroalkyl acids    Perfluorooctanoic acid    Perfluorooctane sulfonates    Environmental pollution    Toxicological effects
收稿日期: 2009-07-01 出版日期: 2010-05-10
:  X171  


通讯作者: 戴家银(1965-),男,安徽安庆人,研究员,主要从事生态毒理学研究.     E-mail:
作者简介: 方雪梅(1972-),女,安徽宿州人,博士生,主要从事生态毒理学研究
E-mail Alert


方雪梅,王建设,戴家银. 全氟类有机污染物的污染状况及其生态毒理研究进展[J]. 地球科学进展, 2010, 25(5): 543-551.

Fang Xuemei,Wang Jianshe,Dai Jiayin. The Progress in Environmental Distributions and Toxicological Effects of Perfluoroalkyl Acids. Advances in Earth Science, 2010, 25(5): 543-551.


[1] Lau C, Anitole K, Hodes C, et al. Perfluoroalkyl acids: A review of monitoring and toxicological findings[J]. Toxicological Sciences,2007, 99(2):366-394.[2] Prevedouros K, Cousins I T, Buck R C, et al. Sources, fate and transport of perfluorocarboxylates[J].Environmental Science & Technology,2006, 40(1):32-44.[3] U.S.Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA). Draft risk assessment of the potential human health effects associated with exposure to perfluorooctanoic acid and its salts[EB/OL].,2005.
[4] Yamashita N, Kannan K, Taniyasu S, et al. A global survey of perfluorinated acids in oceans[J]. Marine Pollution Bulletin,2005, 51(8/12):658-668.
[5] Boulanger B, Vargo J, Schnoor J L, et al. Detection of perfluorooctane surfactants in Great Lakes Water[J]. Environmental Science & Technology,2004, 38(15): 4 064-4 070.
[6] Saito N, Harada K, Inoue K, et al. Perfluorooctanoate and perfluorooctane sulfonate concentrations in surface water in Japan[J].Journal of Occupational Health,2004, 46(1):49-59.
[7] Emmett E A, Shofer F S, Zhang H, et al. Community exposure to perfluorooctanoate: Relationships between serum concentrations and exposure sources[J].Journal of Occupational Environmental Medicine,2006, 48(8):759-770.
[8] Ju X, Jin Y, Sasaki K, et al. Perfluorinated surfactants in surface, subsurface water and microlayer from Dalian Coastal waters in China[J]. Environmental Science & Technology,2008, 42(10):3 538-3 542.
[9] Liu Wei, Jin Yihe, Quan Xie, et al. Investigation of PFOS and PFOA pollution in snow in Shenyang, China[J]. Environmental Science,2007, 28(9):2 068-2 073.
[10] Jin Yihe,Ding Mei,Zhai Cheng, et al. An investigation of the PFOS and PFOA pollution in Three Gorges Reservoir areas of the Yangtze River and surface water of Wuhan areas[J]. Ecology and Environment,2006, 15(3):486-489.[金一和,丁梅,翟成,等.长江三峡库区江水和武汉地区地面水中PFOS和PFOA污染现状调查[J]. 生态环境, 2006, 15(3):486-489.]
[11] So M K, Miyake Y, Yeung W Y, et al.Perfluorinated compounds in the Pearl River and Yangtze River of China[J].Chemosphere,2007, 68(11):2 085-2 095.
[12] Barton C, Butler L E, Zarzecki C J, et al. Characterizing perfluorooctanoate in ambient air near the fence line of a manufacturing facility: Comparing modeled and monitored values[J]. Journal of Air Waste Management Association,2006, 56(1):48-55.
[13] Harada K, Nakasanishi S, Sasaki K, et al. Particle size distribution and respiratory deposition estimates of airborne perfluorooctanoate and perfluooctanesulfonate in Kyoto area, Japan[J]. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination Toxicology,2006, 76(2):306-310.
[14] Kim S K, Kannan K.Perfluorinated acids in air, rain, snow, surface runoff, and lakes: Relative importance of pathways to contamination of urban lakes[J].Environmental Science & Technology,2007, 41(24):8 328-8 334.
[15] Higgins C P, Field J A, Criddle C S, et al. Quantitative determination of perfluorochemicals in sediments and domestic sludge[J]. Environmental Science & Technology,2005, 39(11):3 946-3 956.
[16] Young C J, Furdui V I, Franklin J, et al.Perfluorinated acids in Arctic snow: New evidence for atmospheric formation[J]. Environmental Science & Technology,2007, 41(10): 3 455-3 461.
[17] Moriwaki H, Takatah Y, Arakawa R. Concentrations of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in vacuum cleaner dust collected in Japanese homes[J].Journal of Environmental Monitoring,2003, 5(5):753-757.
[18] Shoeib M, Harner T, Wilford B H, et al. Perfluorinated sulfonamides in indoor and outdoor air and indoor dust: Occurrence, partitioning, and human exposure[J]. Environmental Science & Technology,2005, 39(17):6 599-6 606.
[19] Oakes K D, Sibley P K, Solomon K R, et al. Impact of perfluorooctanoic acid on fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) fatty acyl-CoA oxidase activity, circulating steroids, and reproduction in outdoor microcosms [J]. Environmental Toxicology Chemistry,2004, 23(8):1 912-1 919. 
[20] Tomy G T, Budakowski W, Halldorson T, et al. Fluorinated organic compounds in an eastern Arctic marine food web[J]. Environmental Science &Technology,2004, 38(24): 6 475-6 481.
[21] Giesy J P, Kannan K. Global distribution of perfluorooctane sulfonate in wildlife[J]. Environmental Science & Technology,2001, 35(7): 1 339-1 342.
[22] Kannan K, Corsolini S, Falandysz J, et al. Perfluorooctanesulfonate and related fluorinated hydrocarbons in marine mammals, fishes, and birds from coasts of the Baltic and the Mediterranean Seas[J].Environmental Science & Technology,2002, 36(15):3 210-3 216.
[23] De Silva A O, Mabury S A. Isolating isomers of perfluorocarboxylates in polar bears (Ursus maritimus) from two geographical locations[J].Environmental Science & Technology,2004, 38(24): 6 538-6 545.
[24] Dai J, Li M, Jin Y, et al. Perfluorooctanesulfonate and periluorooctanoate in red panda and giant panda from China[J]. Environmental Science & Technology,2006, 40(18):5 647-5 652.
[25] Li X, Yeung L W, Taniyasu S, et al.Accumulation of perfluorinated compounds in captive Bengal tigers (Panthera tigris tigris) and African lions (Panthera leo Linnaeus) in China[J].Chemosphere,2008, 73(10):1 649-1 653.
[26] Li X, Yin Yeung L W, Xu M, et al. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and other fluorochemicals in fish blood collected near the outfall of wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Beijing[J].Environmental Pollutution,2008, 156(3):1 298-1 303.
[27] Taves D R. Evidence that there are two forms of fluoride in human serum[J]. Nature,1968, 217(5 133):1 050-1 051.
[28] Calafat A M, Kuklenyik Z, Caudill S P, et al. Perfluorochemicals in pooled serum samples from United States residents in 2001 and 2002[J]. Environmental Science & Technology,2006, 40(7): 2 128-2 134.
[29] Calafat A M, Kuklenyik Z, Reidy J A, et al. Serum concentrations of 11 polyfluoroalkyl compounds in the US population: Data from the national health and nutrition examination survey (NHANES)[J].Environmental Science & Technology,2007, 41(7):2 237-2 242.
[30] So M K, Yamashita N, Taniyasu S, et al. Health risks in infants associated with exposure to perfluorinated compounds in human breast milk from Zhoushan, China[J].Environmental Science & Technology,2006, 40(9):2 924-2 929.
[31] Olsen G W, Hansen K J, Stevenson L A, et al. Human donor liver and serum concentrations of perfluorooctanesulfonate and other perfluorochemicals[J]. Environmental Science & Technology,2003, 37(5): 888-891.
[32] Midasch O, Drexler H, Hart N, et al. Transplacental exposure of neonates to perfluorooctanesulfonate and perfluorooctanoate: A pilot study[J]. International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health,2007, 80(7): 643-648.
[33] Inoue K, Okada F,Ito R, et al. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and related perfluorinated compounds in human maternal and cord blood samples: Assessment of PFOS exposure in a susceptible population during pregnancy[J].Environmental Health Perspectives,2004, 112(11):1 204-1 207.
[34] Guruge K S, Taniyasu S, Yamashita N, et al. Perfluorinated organic compounds in human blood serum and seminal plasma: A study of urban and rural tea worker populations in Sri Lanka[J].Journal of Environmental Monitoring,2005, 7(4):371-377.
[35] Kannan K, Corsolini S, Falandysz J, et al. Perfluorooctanesulfonate and related fluorochemicals in human blood from several countries[J].Environmental Science & Technology,2004, 38(17): 4 489-4 495.
[36] Midasch O, Schettgen T, Angerer J. Pilot study on the perfluorooctanesulfonate and perfluorooctanoate exposure of the German general population[J]. International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health,2006, 209(6):489-496.
[37] Calafat A M, Needham L L, Kuklenyik Z, et al. Perfluorinated chemicals in selected residents of the American continent[J].Chemosphere,2006, 63(3):490-496. [38] Kerstner-Wood C, Coward L, Gorman G. Protein Binding of Perfluorobutane Sulfonate, Perfluorohexane Sulfonate, Perfluorooctane Sulfonate and Perfluorooctanoate to Plasma (Human, Rat, and Monkey), and Various Human-derived Plasma Protein Fractions[M]. Washington DC: US Environmental Protection Agency, 2003.
[39] Luebker D J, Hansen K J, Bass N M, et al. Interactions of fluorochemicals with rat liver fatty acid-binding protein[J].Toxicology,2002, 176(3): 175-185.
[40] Han X, Kermper R A, Jepson G W. Subcellular distribution and protein binding of pefluorooctanoic acid in rat liver and kidney[J]. Drug and Chemical Toxicology,2005, 28(2):197-209.
[41] Vanden Heuvel J P, Kuslikis B I, Van Rafelghem M L, et al. Tissue distrition, metabolism, and elimination of perfluorooctanoic acid in male an female rats[J].Biochemistry Toxicology,1991, 6(2):83-92.
[42] Olivero V J, Tao L, Johnson R B, et al. Perfluorooctane sulfonate and related fluorochemicals in biological samples from the north coast of Colombia[J]. Environmental Pollutution, 2006, 142(2): 367-372.
[43] Chang S C, Das K, Ehresman D J, et al. Comparative pharmacokinetics of perfluorobutyrate in rats, mice, monkeys, and humans and relevance to human exposure via drinking water[J].Toxicological Scienses,2008, 104(1):40-53.
[44] Hanhijarvi H, Ylinen M, Haaranen T, et al. Proposed species difference in the renal excretion of perfluorooctanoic acid in the beagle dog and rat[C]//Beynen A C, Solleveld H A, eds.New Development in Biosciences: Their Implications for Laboratory Animal Sciences. The Netherlands, Dodrecht: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 1988:409-412. 
[45] Hundley  S G, Sarrif  A M, Kennedy G L, et al. Absorption, Distribution, and Excretion of Ammonium Perfluorooctanoate (APFO) After Oral Administration to Various Species[J].Drug and Chemical Toxicology,2006, 29(2):137-145. 
[46] Butenhoff J L, Jr Kennedy G L, Hinderliter P M,et al. Pharmacokinetics of perfluorooctanoate in cynomolgus monkeys[J].Toxicological Scienses,2004, 82(2): 394-406.
[47] Buist S C, Cherrington N J, Choudhuri S, et al. Gender-specific and developmental influences on the expression of rat organic anion transporters[J]. Journal of Pharmacology Exprimental Therapentics,2002, 301(1): 145-151.
[48] Zhang H, Shi Z, Liu Y, et al. Lipid homeostasis and oxidative stress in the liver of male rats exposed to perfluorododecanoic acid[J].Toxicology Applied Pharmacology,2008, 227(1):16-25.
[49] Okochi E, Nishimaki-Mogami T, Suzuki K, et al.Perfluorooctanoic acid, a peroxisome-proliferating hypolipidemic agent, dissociates apolipoprotein B48 from lipoprotein particles and decreases secretion of very low density lipoproteins by cultured rat hepatocytes[J].Biochimica et Biophysica Actaica,1999, 1 437(3):393-401.
[50] Panaretakis T, Shabalina I G, Grandér D, et al.Reactive oxygen species and mitochondria mediate the induction of apoptosis in human hepatoma HepG2 cells by the rodent peroxisome proliferator and hepatocarcinogen, perfluorooctanoic acid[J].Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology,2001, 173(1):56-64.
[51] Liu C, Yu K, Shi X, et al.Induction of oxidative stress and apoptosis by PFOS and PFOA in primary cultured hepatocytes of freshwater tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)[J].Aquatic Toxicology,2007, 82(2):135-143.
[52] Biegel L B, Hurtt M E, Frame S R, et al.Mechanisms of extrahepatic tumor induction by peroxisome proliferators in male CD rats[J].Toxicological Sciences, 2001, 60(1):44-55.
[53] Kudo N, Suzuki-Nakajima E, Mitsumoto A, et al. Responses of the liver to perfluorinated fatty acids with different carbon chain length in male and female mice:In relation to induction of hepatomegaly, peroxisomal beta-oxidation and microsomal 1-acylglycerophosphocholine acyltransferase[J]. Biological &Pharmacentical Bulletin,2006, 29(9):1 952-1 957.
[54] Griffith F D, Long J E. Animal toxicity studies with ammonium perfluorooctanoate[J].American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, 1980, 41(8):576-583.
[55] Dong G H, Zhang Y H, Zheng L, et al. Chronic effects of perfluorooctanesulfonate exposure on immunotoxicity in adult male C57BL/6 mice[J]. Archives of Toxicology,2009, 83:805-815.
[56] Yang Q, Xie Y, DiPierre J W. Effects of peroxisome proliferators on the thymus and spleen of mice[J].Clinical Experimental Immunology,2000, 122:219-226.[57] Loveless S E, Hoban D, Sykes G, et al. Evaluation of the immune system in rats and mice administered linear ammonium perfluorooctanoate[J].Toxicological Sciences,2008, 105(1):86-96.
[58] Fang X, Zhang L, Feng Y, et al. Immunotoxic effects of perfluorononanoic acid on BALB/c mice[J]. Toxicological Sciences,2008, 105(2):312-321.
[59] Yang Q, Abedi-Valugerdi M, Zie Y, et al. Potent suppression of the adaptive immune response in mice upon dietary exposure to the potent peroxisome proliferator, perfluorooctanoic acid[J]. International Immunopharmacology,2002, 2(2/3):389-397.
[60] Qazi M R, Nelson B D, Depierre J W, et al. 28-Day dietary exposure of mice to a low total dose (7mg/kg) of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) alters  neither the cellular compositions of the thymus and spleen nor humoral immune responses: Does the route of administration play a pivotal role in PFOS-induced immunotoxicity?[J].Toxicology,2010, 267(1/3):132-139.
[61] Keil D E, Mehlmann T, Butterworth L, et al.Gestational exposure to perfluorooctane sulfonate suppresses immune function in B6C3F1 mice[J]. Toxicological Sciences,2008, 103(1):77-85.
[62] Qazi M R, Bogdanska J, Butenhoff J L, et al. High-dose, short-term exposure of mice to perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) or perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) affects the number of circulating neutrophils differently, but enhances the inflammatory responses of macrophages to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in a similar fashion[J].Toxicology,2009, 262(3):207-214.
[63] Yang Q, Zie Y, Alexson S E, et al. Involvement of the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha in the immunomodulation caused by peroxisome proliferators in mice[J]. Biochemical Pharmacology,2002, 63(10):1 893-1 900.
[64] Yang Q, Abedi-Valugerdi M, Zie Y, et al. Potent suppression of the adaptive immune response in mice upon dietary exposure to the potent peroxisome proliferator, perfluorooctanoic acid[J]. International Immunopharmacology,2002, 2(2/3):389-397.
[65] Wei Y,Chan L L, Wang D, et al. Proteomic analysis of hepatic protein profiles in rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus) exposed to perfluorooctanoic acid[J]Journal of  Proteome Research,2008, 7(4):1 729-1 739.
[66] Austin M E,Kasturi B S, Barber M, et al. Neuroendocrine effects of perfluorooctane sulfonate in rats[J]. Environmental Health Perspectives,2003, 111(12):1485-1 489.
[67] Fan Yiou,Jin Yihe,Ma Yixin,et al. Effects of pernuorooctane sulfonate on spermiogenesis function of male rats[J]. Journal of Hygiene Research,2005, 34(1):37-39.[范轶欧, 金一和, 麻懿馨,等. 全氟辛烷磺酸对雄性大鼠生精功能的影响[J]. 卫生研究,2005, 34(1):37-39.]
[68] Olson C T, Andersen M E. The acute toxicity of perfluorooctanoic and perfluorodecanoic acids in male rats and effects on tissue fatty acids[J]. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology,1983, 70(3):362-372.
[69] Shi Z, Zhang H, Ding L, et al. The effect of perfluorododecanonic acid on endocrine status, sex hormones and expression of steroidogenic genes in pubertal female rats[J]. Reproductive Toxicology,2009, 27(3/4):352-359.
[70] Lau C, Thibodeaux J R, Hanson R G, et al.Effects of perfluorooctanoic acid exposure during pregnancy in the mouse[J].Toxicological Sciences,2006, 90(2):510-518.
[71] Case M T, York R G, Christian M S. Rat and rabbit oral developmental toxicology studies with two perfluorinated compounds[J].International Journal of Toxicology,2001, 20(2):101-109.
[72] Olsen G W, Butenhoff J L, Zobel L R. Perfluoroalkyl chemicals and human fetal development: An epidemiologic review with clinical and toxicological perspectives[J].Reproductive Toxicology,2009, 27(3/4):212-230.
[73] Washino N, Saijo Y, Sasaki S, et al. Correlations between prenatal exposure to perfluorinated chemicals and reduced fetal growth[J].Environmental Health Perspectives,2009, 117(4):660-667.
[74] Johansson N, Fredriksson A, Eriksson P. Neonatal exposure to perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) causes neurobehavioural defects in adult mice[J].Neurotoxicology,2008, 29(1):160-169.
[75] Johansson N, Eriksson P, Viberg H. Neonatal exposure to PFOS and PFOA in mice results in changes in proteins which are important for neuronal growth and synaptogenesis in the developing brain[J]. Toxicological Sciences,2009, 108(2):412-418.
[76] Liao C Y, Li X Y, Wu B, et al. Acute enhancement of synaptic transmission and chronic inhibition of synaptogenesis induced by perfluorooctane sulfonate through mediation of voltage-dependent calcium channel[J]. Environmental Science & Technology,2008, 42(14):5 335-5 341.
[77] Harada K, Xu F, Ono K, et al.Effects of PFOS and PFOA on L-type Ca2+ currents in guinea-pig ventricular myocytes[J].Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications,2005, 329(2):487-494.
[78] Jernbro S, Rocha P S, Keiter S, et al. Perfluorooctane sulfonate increases the genotoxicity of cyclophosphamide in the micronucleus assay with V79 cells. Further proof of alterations in cell membrane properties caused by PFOS[J].Environmental Science Pollution Research International,2007, 14(2):85-87.

[1] 孙晓霞. 海洋微塑料生态风险研究进展与展望[J]. 地球科学进展, 2016, 31(6): 560-566.
[2] 姜苏,李院生,马红梅,安春雷. 环境中高氯酸盐的来源、污染现状及其分析方法[J]. 地球科学进展, 2010, 25(6): 617-624.
[3] 闫海涛;胡守云;朱育新. 磁学方法在环境污染研究中的应用[J]. 地球科学进展, 2004, 19(2): 230-236.
[4] 中国科学院学部. 东南沿海经济快速发展地区环境污染及其治理对策[J]. 地球科学进展, 2003, 18(4): 493-496.
[5] 宋玉芳; 高拯民. 污染生态学[J]. 地球科学进展, 1993, 8(2): 91-94.