Kurt Stuwe, Terence D Barr. On uplift and exhumation during convergence[J]. Tectonics, 1998, 17:80-88.
 Roger LeB Hooke. Time constant for equilibration of erosion with tectonic uplift[J]. Geological Society of America, 2003, 31(7):621-624.
 Summerfield M A, Hulton N J. Natural control on fluvial denudation rates in major world drainage basins[J]. Journal of Geophysical Research,1994, 99:13 871-13 883.
 Feilding E J. Tibet uplift and erosion[J].Tectonophysics, 1996, 260:55-84.
 Zeitler P K, Nanga Parbat Working Group. Erosion, Himalayan Geodynamics, and the Geomorphology of Metamorphism[J].Geological Society of America,2001,11:4-8.
 Sibson R H. Frictional constraints on thrust, wrench and normal faults[J]. Nature, 1974, 249 : 542-544.
 Kirby S H. Rheologyofthelithosphere[J]. Reviews of Geophysics and Space Physics,1983, 21:1 458-1 487.
 Ranalli G, Murphy D C. Rheological stratification of the lithosphere[J]. Tectonophysics,1987, 132:281-295.
 Bodri B, Iizuka S. Geothermal and rheological implications of intracontinenta earthquakes beneath the Kan-to-Tokai region[J]. Central Japan Tectonophysics,1991,194:337-347.
 Ranalli G. Rheology of the lithosphere in space and time[C]∥Burg J P, Ford M, eds. Orogeny Through Time. Landon:The Geological Society,1997:19-37.
 Kruse S, McNutt M, PhippsMorgan J, et al. Lithospheric extension near Lake Mead: A model for ductile flow in the lower crust[J]. Journal of Geophysical Research,1991, 96:4 435-4 456.
 McQuarrie N, Rodgers D W. Subsidence of volcanic basin by flexture and lower crustal flow:The eastern Snake Plain, Idiho[J]. Tectonics, 1998, 17:203-220.
 king G C, Stein R S, Rundle J B. The growth of geological structures by repeated earthquakes,1,Conceptual framework[J]. Journal of Geophysical Research,1988, 93:13 307-13 318.
 King G C P, Ellis S. The origin of large local uplift in extensional regions[J]. Nature,1990, 348:689-693.
 Carter N L, Tsenn M C. Flow properies of continental lithosphere[J]. Tectonophysics, 1987, 136:27-63.
 Watts A B, Burov E B. Lithospheric strength and its relationship to the elastic and seismogenic layer thickness[J]. Earth and Planetary Science Letters,2003,213:113-131.
 Hyndman R D, Shearer P J. Water in the lower continental crust:Modeling magnetitelluric and seismic reflection results[J]. Geophysical Journal International,1989, 98:343-365.
 Leven J H, Finlayson D M, Wright C, et al. Seismic reflections from the lower crust around Britain[J]. Geology Society London Special publish,1986,24:11-22.
 Reston T J. The lower crust and the extension of the continental lithosphere:Kinematic analysis of BIRPS deep seismic data.tectonics,1990,9:1 235-1 248.
 Quinlan G. Relationship between deeper lithospheric processes and near surface tectonics of basin[J]. Tectonophysics, 1993, 226:217-225.
 Li Dewei. On continental tectonics and its dynamics[J]. Earth Science,1995, 20(1):19-26. [李德威. 再论大陆构造与动力学[J]. 地球科学——中国地质大学学报, 1995, 20(1):19-26.]
 Li Dewei, Ji Yunlong. Laminar flow in the lower continental crust and its significance for continental dynamics[J]. Seismology and Geology,2000,22(1):89-96.[李德威,纪云龙.大陆下地壳层流作用及其大陆动力学意义[J].地震地质, 2000,22(1):89-96.]
 Zhao Wenjin, Nelson K D, Project INDEPTH Team. Deep seismic reflection evidence for continental underthrusting beneath southern Tibet[J]. Nature,1993,366:557-559.
 Brace W F, Kohlstedt D L. Limits on lithospheric stress imposed by laboratory experiments[J]. Journal of Geophysical Research, 1980, 85:6 248-6 252.
 Wang J N, Hobbs B E, Shimamoto A Ord T, et al. Newtonian dislocation creep in quartzites:Implications for the rheology of the lower crust[J]. Science,1994,265:1 204-1 206.
 He Jiankun,Liu Jinzhao. Lower-crust ductile flow and its dynamical relation with syn-collision crustal extension in orogenic belt[J]. Chinese Journal of Geophysics,2002,45(4):487-495.[何建坤,刘金朝.下地壳流变与造山带同挤压期地壳伸展的动力学关系[J]. 地球物理学报,2002,45(4):487-495.]
 Kirby S H, Kronenberg A K. Rheology of the lithosphere:Selectedtopics[J]. Reviews of Geophysics,1987:251 219-251 244.
 Turcotte D L, Schubert G. Geodynamics: Applications of Continement Physics to Geological Problems[M]. New York:John Wiley,1982.
 Willams C A, Richardson R M. A rheologically layered three-dimensional model of the San Andreas fault in central and southern California[J]. Journal of Geophysical Research,1991,96:16 597-16 623.
 Bird P. Lateral extrusion of lower crust from under high topography in the isostatic limit[J]. Journal of Geophysical Research, 1991,96:10 275-10 286.
 Royden L H, Burchfiel B C, King R W, et al. Surface deformation and lower crustal flow in eastern Tibet[J]. Science,1997, 276:788-790.
 Gratton J. Crustal shortening, root spreading, isostasy, and the growth of orogenic belts: A dimensional analysis[J]. Journal of Geophysical Research,1989,94:15 627-15 634.
 Adams J. Contemporary uplift and erosion of the Southern Alps, New Zealand [J]. Geology, 1980, 91:1-114.
 Koons P O. The topographic evolution of collisional mountain belts: A numerical look at the Southern Alps, New Zealand[J]. American Journal of Science,1989,289:1 041-1 069.
 Koons P O. Two-sided orogen: Collision and erosion from the sandbox to the Southern Alps, New Zealand[J]. Geology, 1990, 18:679-682.
 Peter Molnar, Philip England. Late Cenozoic uplift of mountain ranges and global climate change: Chicken or egg?[J]. Nature, 1990, 346:29-34.
 Raymo M E, Ruddiman W F. Tectonic forcing of late Cenozoic climate[J]. Review Article, 1992, 359:117-122.
 Ahnert F. Functional relationships between denudation, relief and uplift in large mid-latitude drainage basins[J]. American Journal of Science, 1970, 268:243-263.
 Pinet P, Souriau M. Continental erosion and large-scale relief[J]. Tectonics, 1988, 7:563-582.
 Leeder M R. Denudation, vertical crustal movements and sedimentaly basin infill[J]. Geologische Rundschau, 1991, 80(2):441-458.
 Burbank D W. Causes of recent Himalayan uplift deduced from deposited patterns in the Ganges basin[J]. Nature,1992,357:680-683.
 Wdowinski S, Axen G J. Isostatic rebound due to tectonic denudation: A viscous flow model of a layered lithosphere[J]. Tectonics, 1992, 11:303-315.
 Westaway R. Evidence for dynamic coupling of surface processes with isostatic compensation in the lower crust during active extension of western Turkey[J]. Journal of Geophysical Research, 1994, 99:20 203-20 223.
 Avouac J P, Burov J P. Erosion as a driving mechanism of intracontinetal mountain growth[J]. Geophysical research, 1996, 101(B8):17 747-17 769.
 Beaumont C, Jamieson R A, Nguyen M H, et al. Himalayan tectonics explained by extrusion of a low-viscosity crustal channel coupled to focused surface denudation[J]. Nature, 2001, 414(13):738-742.
 Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography Chinese Academy of Sciences. The Evolution of Tienshan[M]. Beijing:Science Press,1986.[中国科学院新疆地理研究所.天山山体演化[M]. 北京:科学出版社,1986.]
 Avouac C, Jamieson R A, Nguyen M H, et al. Active thrusting and folding along the northern Tien Shan and late Cenozoic rotation of Tarim relative to Dzungaria and Kazakhstan[J]. Journal of Geophysical Research,1993,98:6 755-6 804.
 Deng Qidong, Feng Xianyue, Zhang Peizhen, et al. Active Tectonics of Tianshan[M]. Beijing:Seismology Press,2000.[邓启东,冯先岳,张培震,等.天山活动构造[M].北京:地震出版社,2000.]
 Hendrix M S, Dumitru T A, Graham S A. Late Oligocene early Miocene unroofing in Chinese Tien Shan: An early effect of the India Asia collision[J]. Geology,1994, 22:487-490.
 Hendrix M S, Dumitru T A, Graham S A. Sedimentary record and climatic implications of recurrent deformation in the Tien Shan:evidence from Mesozoic strata of the north Tarim, south junggar, and Turpan basins, northwest China[J]. Geological Society of American Bulletin, 1992, 104:53-79.
 Kusznir N J. Deep seismic reflections and the deformational mechanics of the continental lithosphere[J]. Journal of Petrology,1988,(Special Lithersphere Issue):63-87.
 Hodges K V, Hurtado J M, Whipple K X. Southward extrusion of Tibetan crust and its effect on Himalayan tectonics[J]. Tectonics, 2001, 20(6):799-808.
 Schneider D A, Zeitler P K, Kidd W S F, et al. Geochronologic constraints on the tectonic evolution and exhumation of Nanpa, western Himalaya syntaxis Revistied[J]. Geology, 2001, 109:563-583.
 Zeitler P K, Chamberlain C P, Smith H A. Synchronous anatexis, metamorphism, rapid denudation at Nanga Parbat, Pakistan Himalaya[J]. Geology, 1993, 21:347-350.
 Craw D, Koons P O, Winslow D, et al. Boiling fluids in a region of rapid uplift, Nanga Parbat massif, Pakistan[J]. Earth and Planetary Science Letters,1994, 128:169-182.
 Craw D, Chamberlain C P, Zeitler P K, et al. Geochemistry of a dry steam geothermal zone formed during rapid uplift of Nanga Parbat, northern Pakistan[J]. Chemical Geology, 1997, 142:11-22.
 Poage M A, Chamberlain C P, Craw D. Massif-wide metamorphism and fluid evolution at Nanga Parbat, northern Pakistan[J]. American Journal of Science, 2000, 300:463-482.
 Zeitler P K, the Nanga Parbat Working Group. Erosion, Himalayan Geodynamics, and the Geomorphology of Metamorphism[C]∥Shroder J F. Himalaya to the Sea:Geology, geomorphology, and the Quaternary. London, Routledge, 1993:184-197.
 Winslow D M, Zeitler P K, Chamberlain C P. Direct evidence for a seep geotherm under conditions of rapid denudation, western-Himalaya, Padistan[J]. Geology, 1994, 22:1 075-1 078.
 Koons P O. Big mountains, big rivers, and hot rocks: Beyond isostasy[J]. Eos(Translations, American Geophysical Union),1998, 79:908.
 Foster G, Kinny P, Vance D, et al. The pre-Tertiary metamorphic history of the Nangan Parbat Haranosh massif, Pakistan Himalaya[J]. Himalayan-Karakorum-Tibetan Workshop Abstract, 1999a, 14:44-45.
 Foster G, Kinny P, Vance D, et al. The significance of monazite U-Th-Pb age data in metamorphic assemblages: A combined study of monazite and garnet chronometry[J]. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 2000,181:327-340.
 Schneider D A, Edwards M A, Kidd W S F, et al. Tectonics of Nanga parbat, western-Himalaya: Synkinematic plutonism within the doubly vergent shear zones of a crustal-scale pop-up structure[J]. Geology, 1999a, 27:999-1 002.
 Smith H A, Chamberlain C P, Zeitler P K, et al. Documentation of Neogene regional metamorphism in the Himalayans of Pakistan using U-Pb in monazite[J]. Earth and Planetary Science Letters,1992, 113:93-105.
 Zeitler P K. Cooling history of the NW Himalaya, Pakistan[J]. Tectonics, 1985, 4:127-151.
 Winslow D M, Zeitler P K, Chamberlain C P. Geochronologic constraints on syntaxial development in the NPHM, Palostam[J]. Tectonics,1996,15:1 292-1 308.