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地球科学进展  2003, Vol. 18 Issue (3): 464-470    DOI: 10.11867/j.issn.1001-8166.2003.03.0464
研究论文     
美国全球变化研究的法律基础
罗宗俊,刘闯,王正兴
中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所全球变化信息研究中心,北京 100101
LEGAL BASE OF THE US GLOBAL CHANGE RESEARCH PROGRAM
Luo Zongjun,Liu Chuang,Wang Zhengxing
Global Change Information and Research Center, Institute of Geographic Science and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
 全文: PDF 
摘要:

自1990年以来,美国全球变化研究计划(USGCRP)已经实施了10多年,并取得了丰硕的成果,这在很大程度上归因于相对完善的法律体系。一方面,《1990年全球变化研究法案》全面协调该计划在国内和国际的实施,使计划在实施的10年里获得了大量的基础科学数据和丰富的研究成果;另一方面,美国《信息自由法》、《版权法》及相关数据政策促进了全球变化研究数据和信息的共享,避免了在获取科学数据方面的重复建设,提高了数据的使用效率。在全球变化研究法案的强制要求下,美国的全球变化研究计划稳定发展、不断完善。

关键词: 全球变化研究法案数据共享USGCRP    
Abstract:

    The Global Change Research Act of 1990 required establishing the US Global Change Research Program (USGCRP) directly supervised by US president. This program has been successfully carried out for more than ten years mainly because of its sound law base. This paper explores the role of the US law system, which has played in the process of establishment and implementation of the USGCRP. On one hand, the US Global Change Research Program Act of 1990 coordinates the activities among the federal agencies involved in the USGCRP; on the other hand, US Freedom of Information Act and the Copyright Act foster the “full and open” data policy, which has minimized the redundant investment of data development projects of scientific databases and improved the efficiency of scientific data management.
    The Global Change Research Act of 1990 has two parts, of which the first part is about the National Global Change Research Plan, including the background, the development and management, and the budget coordination of the Plan; The second part focuses on international cooperation in global change research, which includes the background and purpose of international cooperation, and the ways to promote international, intergovernmental cooperation on global change research. One of the most important tasks of US Global Change Research Program is to establish Global Change Data and Information System (GCDIS). Through the mechanism of GCDIS, the federal government has promoted the scientific data sharing, although this academic tradition has been partly reflected in the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA). Furthermore, in June 1991, the president office announced the “full and open” policy as the national policy to encourage scientific data sharing.In addition, the Copyright Act also plays an important role in the implementation and management of USGCRP. 
    In short, the legal base of the US Global Change Research Program is composed of the Global Change Research Act of 1990, US Freedom of Information Act, the Copyright Act, the US Global Change Research Data Management Policy, and other related acts and policies, all of which have promoted the efficiency of research resources and data sharing, as well as the sound institutional partnership.

Key words: Global Change Research Program(USGCRP)    Act    Data sharing.
收稿日期: 2002-09-23 出版日期: 2003-06-01
:  G35  
基金资助:

科技部课题“美国基础科学数据共享的机制与管理”(编号:2001DEB30083-1)资助.

通讯作者: 罗宗俊     E-mail: luozj@igsnrr.ac.cn
作者简介: 罗宗俊(1978-),男,福建清流县人,研究生,主要从事全球变化信息研究.E-mail:luozj@igsnrr.ac.cn
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引用本文:

罗宗俊,刘闯,王正兴. 美国全球变化研究的法律基础[J]. 地球科学进展, 2003, 18(3): 464-470.

Luo Zongjun,Liu Chuang,Wang Zhengxing. LEGAL BASE OF THE US GLOBAL CHANGE RESEARCH PROGRAM. Advances in Earth Science, 2003, 18(3): 464-470.

链接本文:

http://www.adearth.ac.cn/CN/10.11867/j.issn.1001-8166.2003.03.0464        http://www.adearth.ac.cn/CN/Y2003/V18/I3/464

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[2] United States Department of Justice. Freedom of Information Act Guide[EB/OL]. http://www.usdoJ.gov/oip/foi-act.htm,2000.

[3] Wang Zhengxing, Liu Chuang. Major acts to promote public funded data sharing in the United States[J]. Library and Information Service, 2002,(6):60-63.[王正兴,刘闯. 美国国有数据与信息共享的法律基础[J].图书情报工作,2002,6:60-63.]

[4] US Copyright Office. Copyright Law of the United States of America, and Related Laws Contained in Title 17 of the United States Code, Circular 92[EB/OL]. http://www.loc.gov/copyright/title17/92chap1.html,2001. 

[5] Liu Chuang, Wang Zhengxing, National renaissance by data opening[N].Sciencetimes, 2002-02-11, (4).[刘闯,王正兴. 数据开放带来国家振兴(之二)[J].科学时报,2002-02-11,(4).]

[6] Sun Chengquan, Qu Jiansheng, Zhao ZhuangJun. A chievement of USGCRP over past decade and perspectives for USGCRP for the decade ahead[J]. Advances in Earth Sciences,2001,16(4):574-579.[孙成权,曲建升,赵转军. 美国全球变化研究计划实施进展与研究展望[J].地球科学进展,2001,16(4):574-579.]

[7] Liu Chuang, Wang Zhengxing. The experience of US global change data and information sharing and its indication to China[J]. Advances in Earth Sciences,2002,17(1):151-157.[刘闯,王正兴.美国全球变化数据共享的经历对我国数据共享决策的启示[J].地球科学进展,2002,17(1):151-157.]

[8] Climate Action Report 2002. The United States of America’s Third National Communication Under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change[EB/OL].http://www.usgcrp.gov/usgcrp/Library/default.htm,2002

[9] The US Climate Change Research Initiative (CCRI): Survey of Research Strategies to Reduce Scientific Uncertainties Presented By Donald L. Evans, Secretary, Department of Commerce At the Request of President George W. Bush, Jr. Presented in August of 2001 http://www.usgcrp.gov/usgcrp/Library/CCRIreport-aug2001/default.htm.

[10] Global Climate Change Policy Book:Details of US initiative announced 14 February 2002, http://www.usgcrp.gov/usgcrp/Library/gcinitiative2002/gccstorybook.htm.

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