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Advances in Earth Science  2021, Vol. 36 Issue (7): 663-670    DOI: 10.11867/j.issn.1001-8166.2021.067
Advance and Trend of the Vent-Distal SEDEX Lead-Zinc Deposits
Huashan SUN(),Hui YANG
School of Earth Resources,China University of Geosciences (Wuhan),Wuhan 430074,China
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Vent-distal Sedimentary-Exhalative(SEDEX)ore deposits are the main source of lead-zinc minerals worldwide,however,their genesis and diagnostic marks are yet controversial. Recently,some important discoveries have been made in the study of typical vent-distal SEDEX ore deposits in the world, including: Submarine exhalative sedimentation is not the unique way of mineralization, and laminated mineralization is not an exclusive diagnostic signature of the genesis of such deposits; Contrary to the traditional view given that vent-distal SEDEX deposits are generally formed in a closed,reduced and down-warped submarine sedimentary environment,the host rocks of these deposits can be formed in an open and oxidized sedimentary environment; Methane anaerobic oxidation and submarine hydrothermal alteration may be the main mechanisms for the formation of laminated and layered mineralization of this type of deposits. These understandings not only challenge the traditional genetic model of SEDEX deposits but also lead to the change of traditional prospecting and exploration evaluation criteria. Therefore,it is one of the urgent tasks to strengthen metallogenic research of this type of deposits learnt from the existing research experiences.

Key words:  Vent-distal SEDEX deposit      Diagnostic signature      Sedimentary environment      Mineralized mechanism     
Received:  06 May 2021      Published:  20 August 2021
ZTFLH:  P618.4  
Fund: the National Natural Science Foundation of China "Metallogenic tectonic setting and key ore-controlling factor of the Xitieshan SEDEX Pb-Zn deposit in Qinghai Province, China"(41172087)
About author:  SUN Huashan (1969-), male, Chengde City, Hebei Province, Associate professor. Research areas include massive sulfide deposits.
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Huashan SUN,Hui YANG. Advance and Trend of the Vent-Distal SEDEX Lead-Zinc Deposits. Advances in Earth Science, 2021, 36(7): 663-670.

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Fig. 1  Genetic model comparison of SEDEX Pb-Zn deposits7
(a)Vent-proximal genetic model; (b)Vent-distal genetic model; Both of (a) and (b) are controlled by submarine sedimentary exhalative and enclosed and reduced sedimentary environment; (c)Hydrothermal altered genetic model of SEDEX Pb-Zn deposits. Notably, mineralization is controlled by hydrothermal alteration within the diagenetic strata and formed in the open and oxidation environments
Fig. 2  Schematic figures for submarine sulphate-methane transition zone a and anaerobic oxidation of methane b29
(a)Sulphate reduced zone in the upper level, methane forming zone in the lower level, sulphate methane transition zone between them; (b)Thicked black arrows denote that SO42- infiltrates downward, whereas CH4 transfers upward, and anaerobic oxidation of methane occurs in the sulphate methane transition zone. In addition, in the upward stratigraphic sequences, it is the characteristics of depletion in δ13C while enrichment in δ34S
Fig. 3  Correlation diagrams between organic carbon contentδ34S of pyrites and δ13C of autogenetic carbonate minerals and strata sequence in the ore-hosted DLK formation of SEDEX Pb-Zn deposit in Selwyn basin Canada22
Fig. 4  Thermodynamic modeling diagrams illustrate how the pH value change which is caused by the alteration between hydrothermal fluids and rocks to effect on the precipitation sequence of sulfides from the hydrothermal fluids14
(a)Stable area of pyrite ranges from 3 to 9 in pH; (b)Higher pH value of 5~11 for sphalerite. Which gives a reasonable explanation for the formation of pyrite before sphalerite, and the latter is the result of alteration triggering pH value increasing
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