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  • CHEN Feiran, LIU Zhujiang, LU Yongchao, WEI Fubing, LI Fei, GUO Jincai, SU Zexin
    Online available: 2024-05-14
    There develop three sets of quality shale in Dalong Formation, Wujiangping Formation and Maokou Formation in mid-upper Permian, which are importance replacements for marine shale gas exploration or Wufeng Formation -Longmaxi Formation. Basing on the relationships between important geological evens built on isochronous stratigraphic framework, sedimentary structures, paleo-environment and ancient living beings, the influence of major geological events such as middle-late Permian upwelling and volcanic activity on the development of organic-rich shale in northeastern Sichuan was studied. It is concluded that: ① 3rd member of Maokou Formation -Dalong Formation can be divided into five four-level sequences, among which the system of TST1, TST3, TST4~TST5 are favorable sections for black organic-rich siliceous shale development, the geological response characteristics of the Middle and Late Permian volcanic activity and upwelling events were clarified. ② A high-quality shale development model with the combined action of volcanic activity, upwelling and other geological events was established, it is clear that SqPm-2 is the initial stage to undergo tectonic extension, the upwelling brought abundance soluble silicons and nutrients that are favorable for living beings such as diatoms, siliceous sponges and radiolarians to breed greatly, belonging to typical coupling developing mode of upwelling and living beings, the shale has the characteristics of high carbon (>10.0%) and high silicon (>70.0 %), but the thickness is relatively thin, which is a typical “thin and high—quality” characteristic, which is a favorable new layer for shale gas exploration in Puguang area; SqPw-2 is the state to undergo rapid extension, the tephra that carries abundant nutrients is favorable to accumulate organic matters, belonging to coupling developing mode of volcanic activities and living beings, the TOC of shale is >4% and siliceous minerals >50.0%, but the thickness is relatively thin, which is a favorable layer for further exploration and expansion; SqPd- 1~SqPd-2 is the flourishing stage the ocean trough came into being, the base subsided, the upwelling and hydrothermalism make siliceous living beings flourishing, a great deal of organic matters are kept in deep anoxic environments, belonging to coupling development mode of upwelling and thermal fluids, the thickness of highquality shale is relatively large (>30 m), which has good exploration potential, and is a favorable stratum for shale gas to submit hundreds of billions of cubic meters of reserves in the next step.
  • ZANG Kunpeng, SHEN Xiaolong, WEI Kangxuan, WEN Jun, PAN Fengmei, XU Honghui, JIANG Yujun
    Online available: 2024-05-14
    Based on the reanalysis of ship-borne underway continuous data observed in 2012 and 2014, and “bottom-up” and “top-down” approaches, the combustion efficiency and CH 4 emission rate of flaring equipped on the oil and gas platforms in the Penglai region in the Bohai Sea were studied. Results showed that peak values of approximately 11 ×10 -6~20×10 -6 and 100 ×10 -9~260×10 -9 of atmospheric CO 2 and CH 4 mixing ratios were observed in the downwind area of flaring. The calculated combustion efficiency of associated gas flaring was (97.8±1.1)%, which was better than most countries around the world. CH 4 emission rate of flaring equipped on the oil and gas platforms was 3.6~6.1 Gg/a and 1.80~2.68 Gg/a, estimated by using the “bottom-up” and “top-down” approaches, respectively, indicated the flaring was hot spot source of atmospheric CH4. On the other hand, difference of results estimated by the “bottom-up” and “top-down” approaches was still remarkable, mostly due to the limit spatiotemporal representation of emission factors and observation data. This study was beneficial to promote the recycle and re-use of associated gas and reduction of CH 4 emissions from the marine oil and gas exploitation in China.
  • SUN Xinyao, ZHANG Ke, LIN Qi, SHEN Ji
    Online available: 2024-05-14
    Global lake systems are facing ubiquitous aquatic environmental challenges since 1950 A.D. . The baseline and changing history of lake aquatic environment can be well reconstructed by quantitative transfer functions, which helps to assess the extent of human impacts on lake ecosystems and set practical targets for ecological restoration. Basic processes of developing and applying quantitative transfer functions are firstly introduced. Then, typical study cases from various lake-catchments are comprehensively summarized to elaborate the applications of applying quantitative transfer functions based on sedimentary subfossils to reconstructing lake aquatic environmental parameters. These parameters include water pH, total phosphorus, dissolved oxygen, transparency, water level, salinity and temperature. The rate and magnitude of deviation from natural baselines due to anthropogenic disturbance and changing trajectories as well as underlying mechanisms in typical lake aquatic environments in the Anthropocene are examined from multiple perspectives. Finally, constraints and prospects of lake transfer functions are targetedly discussed from the following aspects, namely developing new indicators and multi-proxy approach, improving training sets with large sample size and machine learning, strengthening modern ecological study of biological indicators, and combining transfer functions with ecosystem modeling, in order to further improve qualities of transfer functions and enlarge application fields, to provide scientific references and guide for future research.
  • DENG Naier, XU Hao, ZHOU Wen, TANG Xiaochuan, CHEN Yulu, LIU Yongyang, LIU Shaojun, Zhang Yi, JIANG Ke, LIU Ruiyin, SONG Weiguo
    Online available: 2024-05-14
    Pyrite, a significant shale heavy mineral, aids in understanding shale deposition environment. Referencing theWufeng-Long 1 subsection Formation of the Luzhou Block in Sichuan Basin, a network model for pyrite SEM image segmentation was established via core mineral experiments, SEM observations, network model refinement, and feature parameter analysis. It assesses the study block's sedimentary environment utilizing pyrite framboids parameters. Results indicate: ① The enhancement of the UNet-Im model for pyrite framboids SEM images resulted in a segmentation precision of 0.863, demonstrating the effectiveness of the enhancement measures. ②Pyrite content varies from 2.95% in Long 1- 3 1 minor layer to 0.83% in Wufeng Formation, with Long41 minor layer at 2.03%. ③The pyrite depositional environments are deduced as deep-water sulphide environment, deep-water strong reducing environment, deep-water strong-weak reduction environment, and deep-water reductive-suboxidative environment, based on pyrite framboids characteristics. This paper accurately segments pyrite SEM images, enhancing exploration and development intelligence in the industry.
  • LIN Yangfan, LI Mingqi
    Online available: 2024-05-14
    The tree-ring latewood maximum density is a well-known proxy of temperature during or at the end of growing season . Utilizing the DENDRO2003 tree ring density analysis system, the density data was obtained from tree increment cores of Picea brachytyla var.complanata,collected from the northwestern Yunnan Province. Each tree-ring latewood maximum density series was fit with a 67-year cubic smoothing spline to remove the non-climatic trends, and the latewood maximum density chronology was developed using the ARSTAN program spanning from 1253 to 2017 AD for our study area. Correlation analyses were conducted between the latewood maximum density chronology and the climatic elements recorded at Deqin meteorological station. The results indicated that the strongest correlation (r= 0.495, p<0.01) was found between the average September-October maximum temperature and the latewood maximum density chronology, and a stronger correlation (r=0.763, p<0.01) was found for the first-difference data of the same variables. Furthermore, the results of a 31-year moving correlation analysis indicated that the correlation between maximum density chronology and average September-October maximum temperature was weakening during 1955-2017, while it showed a stronger correlation and increasing after the first-difference at the same period. The results suggested that it will be better if the tree-ring latewood maximum density serves as a proxy of inter-annual temperature variation. However, the conclusion need to further validation in the northwestern Yunnan Province.
  • ZHANG Jun, LUO Derui, LI Chunjie, WANG Tao, ZHU Zezhou, HUANG Xiaozhong
    Online available: 2024-05-09
    Coprophilous fungal spores, as a “Non-Pollen Palynomorphs” part of the information of the pollen analysis, are mainly used to reconstruct past changes in population size of herbivores and the intensity of pastoral activities. By systematically summing up the research examples of the modern process and paleoecological application of coprophilous fungal spores at home and abroad, this paper found that: In terms of the study of the modern process, foreign research has focused on diversity, influencing factors, and the dissemination, transportation, and deposition processes of coprophilous fungal spores. Notably, Sporormiellatype, Sordaria spp., and Podospora sp. have emerged as reliable indicators of herbivore activity. The Sporormiella-type coprophilous fungal spores, in particular, have found widespread application across different study areas. A good correlation between coprophilous fungal spores and grazing activity was found in the northeastern part of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. For paleoecological studies, foreign studies have demonstrated that Sporormiella-type fungal spores effectively indicate the extinction of large herbivores and fluctuations in grazing intensity. Domestic studies, meanwhile, has identified the suppression of human hunting activities on herbivores during the early and middle Holocene. Key transitional periods have been identified, such as the beginning of grazing activity ~5.6 ka, an increase after ~4 ka, and the significant increase during the historical period. In future research, it is necessary to strengthen the modern process investigation of coprophilous fungal spores to understand the production, transmission, deposition, and preservation processes of coprophilous fungal spores and their mechanisms, and to explore the relationship between coprophilous fungal spores and the population size of herbivores, vegetation state, sedimentary environment, and transport dynamics for providing a helpful for accurate interpretation of fossil coprophilous fungal spore records of natural sedimentary strata by combining multiple indicators and interdisciplinary evidence. Therefore, strengthening research on the modern process and application of coprophilous fungal spores is of great significance for understanding the historical processes of past human activities and their interactions with environmental changes.
  • CHENG Jiuju, LÜ Xinmiao, ZHU Liping, MA Qingfeng, HUMAGAIN SIMA, PAUDAYAL KHUM N
    Online available: 2024-04-19
    Abstract:Understanding the composition and formation conditions of regional airborne pollen is helpful to clarify the environmental significance of different pollen assemblages. The Burkard pollen trap was used to observe airborne pollen on the northern slope of Mount Qomolangma for two consecutive years (2012 and 2013). Based on backward air mass trajectory model and source receptor models, the pathway and potential source of Alnus pollen which is the main component in autumn were discussed. The relationship between Alnus pollen and plant distribution and atmospheric circulation were analyzed as well as its environmental significance. Three main results were obtained. First, the air mass transport pathway during Alnus pollen season mainly came from the southwest direction of the sampling site. Second, the potential source area of Alnus pollen was mainly located in the middle Himalaya region including central and eastern Nepal, southern Tibet, etc, which is basically corresponded with the main air mass transport pathway. Third, the interannual changes of Alnus pollen quantity, transport pathway and potential source area may be related to atmospheric circulation. The southwest air mass influenced by upper westerly had a stronger influence on Alnus pollen. The results provide foundational insights into the climatic significance of exotic pollen on the northern slope of the Mt. Qomolangma region.
  • TONG Chuan, LUO Min, HU Minjie, WANG Chun, LIU Baigui, ZHAN Pengfei
    Online available: 2024-04-19
    Sea-level rise (SLR) directly changes hydrology and salinity in estuarine tidal wetlands, and is one of the primary drivers of global change that significantly impacts ecosystem process. In this paper, various methodologies and experimental facilities (marsh organs, weirs, and flow-through mesocosms) for manipulating SLR are systematically reviewed. The paper provides a comprehensive summary of the effects and mechanisms associated with SLR on the fluxes and production rates of CH 4 and CO 2, the pathways and rates of soil organic carbon mineralization from two perspectives of SLR-saltwater intrusion and inundation increase. The saltwater intrusion due to SLR notably decreased the production rates and fluxes of CH 4. Simultaneously, induced a shift in the pathways of soil organic carbon mineralization, transitioning from CH4 production to microbial SO24- reduction in tidal freshwater marshes. The main mechanism behind the reduction in CH 4 flux caused by saltwater intrusion is the heightened presence of electron acceptor SO 2- 4, which hinders soil CH 4 production. The impact of SLR through saltwater intrusion on CO2 emissions exhibits distinct uncertainty in tidal freshwater marshes. Due to the inherent challenges in experimentally manipulating SLR in situ, there was a scarcity of reports on the effects of SLR-related inundation increase on the fluxes and production rates of CH4 and CO2. However, some studies suggested that inundation height increase leads to a reduction in CO 2 emissions. Additionally, the paper consolidates information on electron acceptors and microbe mechanisms associated with SLR that influence the pathways and rates of soil organic carbon mineralization in coastal tidal wetlands. Finally, the paper outlines the specific domains that warrant further exploration in future research on SLR’s impact on the production and emission of carbon greenhouse gases in estuarine tidal marshes.
  • YAO Jiaqi, CHANG Huanyu, WANG Mengran, CHEN Min, MO Fan, XU Nan, WEN Zhen, CAO Yongqiang
    Online available: 2024-04-19
    :水文水资源监测是对地观测系统的重要任务之一,是支撑新时代水利高质量发展、满足“三 水”共治需求和践行“十六字”治水策略的直接有效途径,而卫星遥感技术提供了一种大范围、快速 和高精度的数据获取渠道。但是现有卫星遥感在水文水资源应用上存在多星同步观测难、应急响 应能力差和易受天气影响等问题,因此美国国家航空航天局于2022 年12 月发射了地表水和海洋地 形卫星(Surface Water and Ocean Topography,SWOT),这是全球第一颗通过多传感器协同观测全球 陆地和海洋水资源的卫星,预期将极大提升水文水资源监测的时空分辨率和精度。系统梳理了水 文水资源监测卫星发展现状、应用和技术难点等概况,并分析了SWOT 卫星的参数、科学任务、算 法流程和应用产品等内容,对我国后续卫星设计规划和数据处理关键技术有一定的参考价值。
  • LIU Jinbo, ZHANG Yong, LIU Shiyin, WANG Xin, JIANG Zongli
    Online available: 2024-04-19
    There are a large number of rock glaciers in the Tibetan Plateau and surroundings. Because of its unique water storage and climate response, rock glaciers not only affect the potential solid water resources in the region, but also increase the risk of corresponding disasters, which has attracted more and more attention. Currently, there is a lack of study on the identification of rock glaciers, ice volume estimation and simulation of dynamic processes, which results in the inability to accurately assess changes in rock glaciers and their climate response characteristics in regions with no or missing data.This review systematically analyzes the distribution characteristics of rock glaciers in the Tibetan Plateau and surroundings, and comprehensively investigates the research progress on the identification of rock glaciers, ice volume estimation, and dynamic processes. Due to the lack of observation data and the uncertainty of methods, there still remain many challenges in rock glacier identification, ice volume estimation and dynamic process simulation on the Tibetan Plateau and surroundings. In the future, we will deeply understand the interaction mechanism between climate and dynamic processes of rock glaciers, strengthen the multi-level, multi-angle and multi-method monitoring based on Space-Air-Ground, and integrate artificial intelligence and new observation technology into rock glacier identification and ice volume estimation methods. Then, we can accurately evaluate the changes, future trends and impacts of rock glaciers in the Tibetan Plateau and surroundings under climate change conditions, serving the sustainable social and economic development of the Tibetan Plateau and surroundings.
  • ZHANG Fule, WANG Jinlong, HUANG Dekun, YU Tao, DU Jinzhou
    Online available: 2024-01-17
    Abstract:On 24 August 2023, the Japanese government started the discharge of the Fukushima nuclear  contaminated water (FNCW) into the North Pacific, which will increase some radiation risks to the marine ecological environments. Here we analyzed the concentrations of the major artificial radionuclides in the FNCW and estimated their inventories. Based on the data provided by Tokyo Electric Power Company, we found that the concentrations of 3H in FNCW tanks as March 2023 ranged from 1.9×10 5 Bq/L to 25.0×10 5 Bq/L, significantly exceeding the maximum release concentration for 3H (6×10 4 Bq/L) allowed by Japanese law. Besides, the concentrations of 90Sr and 129I in some FNCW tanks were also higher than the corresponding maximum release concentrations (30 Bq/L for 90Sr and 9 Bq/L for 129I) allowed by Japanese law. The inventories of 3H and 129I in the FNCW before the discharge were estimated to be 0.9 PBq and 6.2×10 9 Bq, respectively, which were comparable to the leakage amounts of 3H (0.1~1.0 PBq) and 129I (6.9×10 9 Bq) to the ocean during the nuclear accident stage. We further discussed the migration and behavior of typical Fukushima radionuclides ( e.g., 3H, 14C, 60Co, 90Sr, 129I, 134,137Cs and 239,240Pu) in the marine environments from three aspects: ①the transport of Fukushima radionuclides by ocean currents in the Pacific; ②sediment adsorption to radionuclides and ③marine biota uptake of radionuclides. This study is expected to provide some scientific foundations and insights for the radiation monitoring and risk assessment that may be required to respond to the discharge of FNCW.
  • JIANG Hong, HAN Yongming, LIU Weiguo, CAO Yunning, HU Jing, FAN Huimin, LIU Bo
    Online available: 2024-01-17
    Abstract: Based on global comparison of geological records, the international Anthropocene Working Group (AWG) suggested that the mid-20th century (~1950 CE) be the onset of the Anthropocene, the Sihailongwan maar Lake sediment had been listed as one of the candidates for Global Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP) for Anthropocene. However, human had put a profound impact on the environment of areas around the Sihailongwan maar Lake before 1950 CE. Historical sequences of TOC contents, C/N ratios, δ 13 C org values, Ca/Ti ratios and concentrations of silicate major elements Si, Al, K since 900 CE were reconstructed, the average resolution is ~10 a, to explore the history of human activities in this region, with the background of climate change. It was found that human activities had significantly increased since 1850 CE, but the changes in the measured proxies during the Medieval Warm Period and Little Ice Age before 1850 CE generally followed natural laws. The changes in the measured proxies during 1850–1950 CE reflected the rapid population growth, which damaged vegetation, and thus resulted in intensified weathering, and deviation of the surface environment evolution from natural state, these indicate that human had started to be an important force for geological environment, but the changes during this period were only local signals; after 1950 CE, C/N ratios and δ 13C org values decreased continuously, which reflected that the environmental status of the area around Sihailongwan maar Lake changed once again, under the new government and advanced productivity, this was in sync with the Great Acceleration of global geological environment, and can support that “the mid-20th century is the onset time of the Anthropocene” proposed by the AWG.
  • SONG Wenjie, LIANG Yuzheng, TAO Zhen, ZHONG Qingxiang, HE Yicong
    Online available: 2023-11-24
    Soil organic carbon (SOC) comprises a crucial component of terrestrial ecosystem carbon pool because of its larger storage and longer resident time. Smaller changes in the SOC pool will have a significant impact on terrestrial carbon flux and the global climate change. The mechanism of composition, transformation and stability of SOC are mainly controlled by soil microbial properties. Therefore, this paper reviews the research results on the formation, transformation and stabilization of SOC mediated by microorganisms, aiming to further understand the function of soil carbon sequestration. SOC consists of plant-driven carbon and microorganismsdriven carbon. Plant carbon is the main source of SOC. Soil microbial activity is the main driving force for SOC formation, transformation and stabilization. Soil microorganisms decompose plant carbon to form easy turnover soil particulate organic carbon through “ex vivo modification” pathway. Microbial residual carbon (MRC) produced by soil microorganisms through “in vivo turnover” pathway and mineral-associated organic carbon (MAOC) formed by the interaction with soil clay minerals contribute to the stable SOC components, of which, the contribution rate of MRC to stable SOC was 38.74%. The equilibrium between the “priming effect” and the “ongoing buried effect” regulates the storage and stability of SOC. At the global scale, microbial activity mediating SOC change is subject to annual precipitation and soil environmental factors (SOC, TN, pH). In response to global changes, the mechanism of SOC quantity and quality controlled by coupling plant litter, microbial activity and soil matrix should be pay more attention, and Environmental dependence of microbial carbon use efficiency for understanding the carbon sequestration effect from soil microorganisms in the future.
  • REN Jianguo, WANG Yang, LÜ Dawei, CHAI Peng, LI Dan, LI Zhiqing, XIAO Di
    Online available: 2023-10-09
    In order to better understand the application process and outcome of projects in the field of Geological Sciences, improve the quality of project applications and final reports, and understand the current research hotspots of this discipline, we analyzed the application, review, and funding outcomes of 2023 geology projects (application code D02). Problems in the process of proposal review and acceptance were identified. This paper summarizes the completion of the final project in 2022 and the research progress in the major disciplines. In particular, project proposals from 2023 and youth fund applications in the relevant branches of the field of deep Earth processes and dynamics were examined. The keywords of the set of applications from 2023 were analyzed using the “word cloud” statistical analysis method. The research hotspots in this field and each branch discipline were determined to provide a guide for future project applicants.
  • LI Wei, XIAO Jun, KANG Jinting, FANG Chenchen
    Online available: 2023-10-08
    We analyzed the 2023 funding schemes managed by the Division of Geochemistry (application code: D03), Department of Earth Sciences, National Natural Science Foundation of China, with the goal of understanding the challenges faced by the foundation and finding solutions. Data from the past five years related to the number and type of applications, rate of acceptance, peer review process, and funding status were included in our analysis. The summarized results show that: ① the total number of applications received by the Division of Geochemistry has decreased by 5.1% compared with the number received in 2022; ② in terms of research field, the group of applications coded as “surface geochemistry” was the fastest growing group, entering the top three codes in the Division of Geochemistry; and ③ the applicants and principals of projects in the Division of Geochemistry are all more than one year younger than the average age of all applicants under the Department of Earth Sciences. Overall, the Division of Geochemistry faces the challenges of small quantity of projects and slow growth; however, it has the advantage of relatively young research teams. To strengthen future development in the field of applied geochemical research, continued support of basic research (including theoretical and methodological studies) is needed on theories and methods. The research advances presented in project reports completed in 2023 are also discussed.
  • CHENG Huihong, SUN Changqing, REN Jie, SONG Xiaogang, ZHOU Jun
    Online available: 2023-10-07
    We summarized and analyzed the project applications in the fields of geophysics and space physics under General Programs, Young Scientists Fund, Fund for Less Developed Regions, and other programs managed by the Department of Earth Sciences in 2023. In this analysis, we focused on the submission and acceptance statistics and process, review of proposals, and grant awards. Additionally, we summarized the important research progress made in the major branches of these disciplines in 2022.
  • LENG Shuying, ZHANG Liang, TAN Xiaoxiao, JU Peng, SONG Wei, MAO Wei
    Online available: 2023-09-27
    Abstract: To better understand the state of science research funding and improve the quality of both proposals and final reports, we analyzed the processes of application, review, and funding in the fourth division (i.e., Marine and Polar Sciences Division) of the Department of Earth Science. Problems that occurred during the peer review process in 2023 are identified and discussed, and the performance of completed and ongoing research projects in 2022 is assessed. Compared to 2022, in 2023, 36 more institutions submitted proposals to the General Program, Youth Science Fund, and Less Developed Regions Fund of the Marine and Polar Sciences Division. The total number of applications decreased by 6, with 56 in the general program, 33 in the Youth Science Fund, and 17 in the Less Developed Regions Fund. In addition, the final reports of the completed projects in 2022 had issues, such as a low ratio of first acknowledgement of funding and poor report writing.
  • JIANG Qiang, QIU Nansheng
    Online available: 2023-09-19
    The three Cretaceous oceanic large igneous provinces—the Kerguelen, Ontong Java, and Caribbean large igneous provinces—have widely been regarded as the triggers of the two Cretaceous global oceanic anoxic events. The premise for ascribing a causal relationship between a large igneous province and an oceanic anoxic event is their synchronicity. However, due to the detrimental effect of seawater alteration of commonly used dating materials in oceanic basalts, the ages that have been published for oceanic large igneous provinces are not all robust. Here we compile all published dating results of oceanic large igneous provinces and assess the robustness of each age data. The results show that although the quality-filtered robust ages for the large igneous provinces can provide evidence for the existence of contemporaneous eruptions with the oceanic anoxic events, the eruptive duration and tempo of the large igneous provinces remain unclear. More age data are needed to constrain the possible causal relationship between the three large igneous provinces and the two Cretaceous global oceanic anoxic events.
  • ZHANG Kaixin, HUANG Chingsheng, WANG Chen, TONG Chenchen, WANG Zicheng
    Online available: 2023-04-11
    Various models have been developed for radially divergent tracer tests in two-zone confined aquifers of the skin and formation zones. However, existing numerical solutions require considerable computing time because of the fine spatial discretization of skins. The abrupt change in parameters near the skin-formation interface produces significant errors while predicting the spatiotemporal concentration near the interface, despite fine spatial discretization. In this study, a new model was developed for conducting radially divergent tracer tests in a partially penetrating well in a two-zone-confined aquifer. The skin was treated as a new transient Robin boundary condition specified at the skin-formation interface to reflect the effect of solute adsorption/release in the
    skin and achieve no skin discretization. A finite element solution for the model was developed. The analytical solution of the model modified for full penetration of the well was developed using the Laplace transform. These results suggest that the transient Robin boundary condition leads to accurate concentration predictions affected by negative skin. The analytical solution predicts reliable ranges of 0.47~0.48 m for the skin width w and 6.4~7.7 m for the longitudinal dispersivity α'l, whereas a traditional solution exhibits a range of 0.45 m≤w≤0.54 m and 0.6 m≤α'l≤10 m. The finite element solution required only 3% of the computing time for obtaining a finite element solution based on fine skin discretization. In conclusion, this study provides implications not only
    for theoretical advances but also for useful numerical methods.
  • LI Yu, DUAN Junjie, LI Haiye, GAO Mingjun, ZHANG Yuxin, XUE Yaxin
    Online available: 2023-04-11
    Lakes play an essential role in the evolution of regional water cycles and ecosystems. In previous studies on lake evolution, most lake sediment proxy indicators have been used to reconstruct lake and climate change processes. However, there is a lack of quantitative research on the lake water cycle characteristics. Based on the water balance model for watersheds and lakes in distinct periods and the lake energy balance model based on the simulation of the transient climate, water balance calculations and lake evolution simulations for six typical lakes in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and its surrounding areas were carried out in this study. The results showed that the precipitation and evaporation variabilities in Xiao Qaidam Lake and Lop Nur were relatively
    small during the Holocene. The precipitation and evaporation variability in Selinco and Namco were relatively large during the early–middle Holocene and were mainly controlled by temperature and net radiation changes. The precipitation and evaporation variabilities in Qinghai Lake and Zhuyeze were similar during the early and mid–late Holocene. This study systematically analyzed and calculated the evolution of lake water cycle elements in different climatic regions of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau during the Holocene, which will help to understand the paleoclimatic mechanism of lake evolution in this region.
  • LIU Yu, ZHANG Fengshou, SUN Jianqiang, ZHU Zhiqiang, WANG Yu, YANG Zhongkang, ZHANG Xin, GUO Zhilin, ZHANG Bo, CHEN Tao
    Online available: 2022-12-06
    We analyzed the submissions, acceptances, reviews, and grant funding of various projects of National Natural Science Foundation of China in the Environmental Geosciences in 2022 and, pointed out the issues we withfound during the submission and review processes. Moreover, wWe also summarizedd the main research progresseses and outcomes of the completed funding projects byin the Division of Environmental Geosciences completed at the end of 2021.
  • HE Jianjun, GE Fei, LIU Zhe, ZHANG Yu, GUO Yucong, LI Jing
    Online available: 2022-12-01
    The Division V (Atmospheric Discipline) of the Department of Earth Sciences, the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC), successfully completed the application, review, funding and conclusion of General Program, Young Scientists Fund, and Fund for Less Developed Regions in 2022. In terms of program applications, the Division V of Department of Earth Sciences received 1817 applications for the above three types of programs in 2022, with an increase of 5.9% over 2021. Among them, 11 applications were not accepted because they did not conform to the management specifications. From the perspective of project review, the comprehensive score in 2022 is slightly higher than that in 2021. The review expert group supports original and cross research, as well as technology research and development. In terms of funding, the number of the above three types of programs funded in 2022 increased by 7.0% compared with 2021, and 11.9% for the Youth Science Foundation. From the conclusion results, 314 projects were concluded in 2021, and the indexes such as published papers were equivalent to those in previous years. In 2022, the atmospheric discipline is included in the “Responsibility, Credibility, Contribution (RCC)” evaluation mechanism reform pilot discipline. In 2022, 97.3% of review comments return on time. 81.8% of the experts believed that RCC mechanism could improve the fairness of the expert evaluation, and 90.9% of the experts believed that RCC mechanism could make the experts pay more attention to the contribution of the evaluation opinions to the applicants.
  • REN Jianguo, CHU Hang, LÜ Dawei, SUN Wenjie, SONG Huanxin, LI Suping, CAO Mingjian
    Online available: 2022-11-30
    为了有效地指导地质学科科研人员和科研单位对次年基金项目的申报,以2022 年度国家自然科学基金委员会地球科学部地质学科所管理的各类项目为研究对象,对各类项目的申请、评审和资助情况,以及4 类科学问题属性项目的申报情况进行了分析,结果显示:①与2021 年度相比,2022 年度的项目申请中,除优秀青年科学基金项目申请数下降之外,其他项目申请数都有所增加;②2022 年度面上项目、青年科学基金项目和地区科学基金项目的评审数比2021 年度略有增加。此外,对2022 年1 月提交的项目进展报告和2021 年底结题的项目结题报告进行了梳理,总结了主要学科方向取得的研究进展。
  • WANG Yongsheng, MAWeiwei, YANG Juanhao, BAI Qiao
    Online available: 2022-11-30
    Continental subduction belt are usually formed following by the development of oceanic subduction, so the information of oceanic subduction and continental subduction should be recorded in the continental orogen. The Dabie Orogen records Triassic continent-continent collision between the South China Block and the North China Block, but there is almost no evidence of oceanic subduction. Based on the speculation that rocks related to oceanic subduction may be covered at the bottom of the Hefei Basin or migrated
    to the deep mantle during continental subduction, this work carried out detailed zircon LA-ICP-MS U-Pb dating and Lu-Hf isotope analysis for the basalt and diabase in the central Hefei Basin. The result show that both the diabase from the Dashushan and the basalt from the Xiaoshushan have obtained much late Paleozoic zircon ages, with the weighted average age of 338, 270 Ma and 349, 273 Ma, while the diabase from the Jimingshan is mainly of Early Cretaceous zircon ages. The zircon ages in these mafic igneous rocks are characterized by continuous distribution from the Paleoproterozoic to the Cretaceous. The two smallest ages indicate the time of the Cenozoic mafic magmatism, and other zircons are come from the recycling of ancient rocks. Based on the comprehensive analysis of zircon preservation under high temperature conditions and their source,it can be concluded that the late Paleozoic zircon in the Cenozoic mafic igneous rocks of the Hefei Basin comes from the magmatic rocks formed by the subduction of the PaleoTethys ocean. During the Triassic continent-continent subduction, the Paleozoic magmatic rocks were partly transported to the mantle depth, and then partially melted with the mantle during the subduction of the Cenozoic Pacific plate to form the Cenozoic mafic igneous rocks. This provides direct evidence for the occurrence of late Paleozoic oceanic subduction in the Dabie Orogen.
  • XIONG Juhua, GAO Yang, WU Hao, LI Xin, LIANG Dan, YU Wenping, MAMeihong, ZHOU Yongqiang, WANG Xiaofeng
    Online available: 2022-11-25
    National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) receives widespread attentions and is the main funding institution of fundamental research in China. The submission and reception of proposals to the Division of Geography of the Department of Earth Sciences of the National Natural Science Foundation of China in 2022 were introduced in this manuscript. The analysis of the proposal reviews and grant funding processes was presented from three subdisciplines that were Physical Geography, Human Geography and Geographic
    Informatics, three types of projects that were General program, Young Scientists Funding Program and Regional Funding Project, and four types of attributes of scientific issues formulated by NSFC. Additionally, issues to be noted in the proposal submission and peer review were pointed out. For the funded projects at the end of 2021, firstly, we analyzed the closeout achievement of various projects, secondly, we focused on the representative achievements and, finally, we pointed the main problems in the project progress report and closing report.
  • LI Wei, XIAO Jun, HAO Lulu, HU Dongmei
    Online available: 2022-11-25
    We summarized the application, peer review, and acceptance of projects managed by Division of Geochemistry (D03), Department of Earth Sciences, National Natural Science Foundation of China in 2022, and introduced the research advances of completed projects in 2021. The results are: ① In 2022, the number of project applications for the discipline of geochemistry remains constant; ② The application formats have been improved and the rates of applications passing preliminary examination are significantly higher than ever before; ③ The submission rates of the General Program, Young Scientists Fund and Fund for Less Developed Regions
    exceed 143.5%; ④ By piloting the mechanism of “Responsibility, Credibility, Contribution” within three years, the Division of Geochemistry has recorded the attitude, justice and contributions of ca. 2000 peer-review experts, in order to explore how to better play the central role of peer-review in funding decisions;⑤ Significant progress have been made in Isotopic Geochemistry, Elemental Geochemistry, Geochronology, and Cosmochemistry in 2021.
  • LENG Shuying, ZHANG Liang, WU Renhao, WANG Lifang, WANG Hui, LE Chengfeng
    Online available: 2022-11-18
    To better understand the application situation for researchers, and further to improve the quality of proposals and final report of funded projects, this paper analyzed the situation of application, review and funded proposals in the fourth division in Earth Science Department (i. e., Ocean and Polar Science Division), sorted problems during proposal acceptance and external review process, and summarized the performance of funded projects ended in 2021. Comparing to 2021, five more institutions submitted General projects,Youth science funding,and Funding for Less Developed Regions proposals to the Ocean and Polar Science Division. The application number for all the three kinds funding increased, with increasing rate of
    13.8%, 10.4%, and 10.6%, respectively, wherein the subcode of D0611 (Ocean Engineering and Environmental Responding ) and D0613 (Oceanic Energy and Resource) have the highest increase rate. The number of application belongs to original innovation and interdisciplinary category increased, however, their ratio slightly decreased. The final report of funded projects ended in 2021 has issues such as insufficient summarization and low ratio of first acknowledgement of the funded project.
  • Huang Ping, ZhouShijie
    Advances in Earth Science.
    Online available: 2018-11-07
    Since tropical rainfall is important in the global energy and hydrologic cycle, the tropical rainfall changes under global warming arise extensive attention around the world in recent decades. The advances in the observational studies and model projection for the tropical rainfall changes under global warming are reviewed here. The frontiers in the mechanism of regional tropical rainfall changes and the approaches of rainfall change research are summarized. The large intermodel spread in the multi-model projections, the sources of uncertainty and the methods to reduce the uncertainty are also introduced. In the last, the challenges about the tropical rainfall changes are discussed.
  • He Yinjie, Wu Da fang, Liu Yan yan
    Advances in Earth Science.
    Online available: 2018-11-07
     The public rail transport system in cities can promote physical urban transition, resulting in land use and land cover change, changing the public daily behaviors and consequently bringing huge economic benefits to its imminent areas. Based on statistical analysis and visualization tools, this study, used Citespace and Google Earth, explored approximately 455 papers from Web of Science and 321 papers from CNKI, to obtain current research trends in assessments of the impacts of public rail transport on land use change. The literature classification, organization and comments on such current studies and hot research topics are valuable for future research. Three conclusions were then drawn: First of all, similar topics have been done by both domestic and oversea scholars, but from slightly different perspective and at different scales. Secondly, public rail transport often caused increasing in housing price for both residential and commercial blocks; the influence on population density is more significant in the outskirts than the counterparts of downtown areas, but the influence often emerged with a with a unfixed time lag. Thirdly, RS,GIS and GPS(3S) techniques are a promising tools for the research of the impacts of public rail transport on land use change in the era of "big data". Based on the conclusions, four suggestions are proposed: Firstly, future research in this field will be more comprehensive and humanistic studies. Secondly, oversea development models could not be fully applied in China, and thus corresponding improvements with China’s situation are required. Thirdly, theoretically speaking, bicycle sharing can expand the service range of public rail transport. Fourthly, reasonable buffers are important to obtain fine statistical area of land change affected by public rail transport.
  • Chen Kegui, Liu Sixu, Wang Zhaofeng, Zhang Yifei
    Advances in Earth Science.
    Online available: 2018-11-07
    The basement carbonate reservoirs, in the Karabulak oilfield of the Southern Turgay basin, have the characteristics of complex structure, variety of pore type and strong heterogeneity. And the identification of such reservoirs by single conventional logging method is always a difficult point in logging interpretation. In this paper, the response characteristics of conventional logging curves such as deep lateral resistivity, acoustic time difference, density and compensated neutron are used for reconstruction. Combined with the improved method of curve change rate, the response laws of fractured carbonate reservoirs, pore-cave reservoirs and fractured vuggy reservoirs on conventional logging curves are summed up respectively. And a new logging evaluation method for carbonate fractured vuggy reservoirs in the Karabulak oilfield of South Turgay basin is proposed. This method is used to identify reservoirs in K8 and K34 wells of this oilfield. The results show that the carbonate reservoirs in this area are mainly fractured-vuggy  type. Compared with the oil test conclusion and imaging logging, the method proposed in this paper accurately divided the reservoir type. And the efficiency and accuracy of the reservoir division have been greatly improved.

  • Li Yongtao, Li Jianwen, Pan Lin, Guo Liangliang, Wei Rongrong, Liu Dezhi
    Advances in Earth Science.
    Online available: 2018-11-07
    With the successful launch of the 16 MEO satellites of the Beidou-3 global satellite navigation system and the broadcast of new signals, Beidou officially entered the global construction stage, while the international GNSS monitoring and assessment system (iGMAS) is also performing systematic testing and evaluation on various aspects of operational performance from satellite end to ground receiving end of Beidou-3 system. This paper analyzes and evaluates the observation quality of new signals B1C and B2a broadcasted by the 12 new Beidou-3 MEO satellites on the observation data integrity rate, multipath error, pseudorange noise and carrier-to-noise ratio (CNR) compared with GPS and GALILEO. The results show that the observation data integrity rate of B1C signal is better than that of B2a signal in the Beidou-3 system. In the aspects of multipath error, pseudorange noise and CNR, B2a signal are better than B1C. The performances of the 12 MEO satellites of Beidou-3 are equivalent, that is, Beidou-3 the consistency of satellites can be guatenteed. In terms of pseudo-range noise, Beidou-3 is slightly worse than GPS and GALILEO While the observation data integrity rate, multipath error and CNR of Beidou-3 are equivalent to GPS and GALILEO.
  • Zhang Shuo, Jian Xing, Zhang Wei
    Advances in Earth Science.
    Online available: 2018-11-07
    In situ analysis of detrital apatite is a significant approach to sedimentary provenance analysis, which is an important aspect in sedimentary geology study. Several trace elements such as Sr, Y and rare earth elements (REEs) concentrate in apatites, and the distribution of these elements is depended on the content of SiO2 and the distribution coefficient of the melt, thus the trace element abundances is obviously different in different rocks. These features can be used to indicate parent-rocks of detrital apatites in sedimentary rocks. The approaches and proxies of detrital apatite to sedimentary provenance analysis can be summarized as follows. ①elemental geochemistry, such as Sr, Y, REEs, the approaches include chondrite-normalised REE distribution patterns of apatites, classification and regression tree (CART) and discriminant plots of REEparameters ; ②isotopic geochemistry, including Sr-Nd and Lu-Hf isotopes; ③Multi-dating , including low-temperature t thermochronology such as (U-Th)/He (AHe)and fission track (AFT) dating, and high-temperature thermochronology such as U-Pb dating. Based on an integrated analysis using these methods, we can get various and comprehensive geological information such as the rock type, formation conditions and evolution of source rocks, the history of uplift and exhumation of source areas and even the subsidence history of sedimentary basins. Although the low-temperature thermochronology of detrital apatite is widely used in sedimentary provenance analysis, the elemental and isotopic geochemistry, as well as the U-Pb dating, remain to be developed and. These approaches are supposed to have wide application prospects in several research areas such as tectonics, sedimentary geology basin analysis and even paleoclimatology.
  • Ma Qianhong, Zhang Keli
    Advances in Earth Science.
    Online available: 2018-11-07
    The karst area of Southwest China is suffering from serious ecological and environmental problems due to soil erosion, while the research on soil erosion is not sufficient. Primary achievement had been systematically reviewed in this paper in three aspects: erosion characteristics, current researches about erosion on different spatial scales, key scientific problems. Based on the review, the authors figured out the shortcomings of the existing studies and pointed out the directions on erosion study in southwest karst region. The results showed that: (1) Due to the existence of a dual structure in karst environment including ground and underground erosion, the process of runoff and sediment production on slope scale and confluence and sediment transportation processes on catchment scale were more complex under the unique geological and hydrological backgrounds; (2) At present, most researches about erosion mechanism in karst area focused on slope scale and some achievement on quantitative evaluation of erosion factors was made. While continuous data with high quality about relationship between water and sediment on catchment scale was limited. When data was scarce, river sediment data could be used as an effective way to study soil erosion intensity and spatial and temporal variation in karst area; (3) It is more reasonable to use 50 t/(km2·a) as the grading standard of soil loss tolerance than the previous grading standard of soil erosion intensity. Given the complex relationship between rocky desertification and soil erosion, more quantitative studies about the effects of rocky desertification on soil erosion were still necessary. There were different viewpoints on soil leakage definitions, the leakage mechanism and soil leakage ratios, and new breakthroughs could be achieved by combining different methods and matching multi-scales. In conclusion, in order to further reveal the soil erosion laws and establish and revise available regional soil erosion forecasting models for Southwest karst areas, synchronous test and monitoring on slope, watershed, and channel spatial scales were urgently needed. The results could provide theoretical and technical support for promoting soil and water conservation works for the karst area of Southwest China.
  • Chen Qilin, Huang Chenggang
    Advances in Earth Science.
    Online available: 2018-11-07
    With the deepening of exploration degree, the progress of exploration technology and the increasing demands for oil and gas resources, some deep buried reservoirs with relatively poor physical properties have attracted more and more attention of geologists. After decades of exploration, many high-quality reservoirs with shallow burial and well-preserved primary pores have been widely discovered and put into production. However, deep buried tight reservoirs with secondary dissolved pores as the main reservoir space are increasingly becoming the focus of exploration in mature exploration areas. Therefore, searching for secondary pore development zones and dissolved “sweet” reservoirs will become an important new field for fine exploration in the future. Based on some typical case study and a large number of research results, this paper systematically expounded the modification of reservoirs by dissolution from the following four aspects:① diagenetic stage of dissolution; ②types of dissolution fluids;③main controlling factors of dissolution; ④ effect of dissolution on reservoir modification. In recent years, more and more research achievements have made important progress in dissolution mechanism and reservoir modification effect. The systematic analysis of these mainstream views has some reference value for similar geological conditions in the future.