The South China Sea (SCS) has achieved rapid development and become an international hot spot in the paleoceanography study since the implementation of ODP Leg 184 in 1999. This paper attempts to review the progress, especially high revolution studies on the last 200 ka in the SCS, mainly relating to changes in sea surface temperature, salinity, productivity, and the upper ocean structure, as well as paleomonsoon records. Many SCS planktonic δ18O curves show different features from the global SPECMAP δ18O standard, with relatively low peaks at MIS5.5 and MIS7.3, but high peaks at MIS3.3 and MIS6.5, and can be called “monsoon-type planktonic δ18O curves”. In contrast to the SPECMAP δ18O standard prevailed by 100 ka cycles, the monsoon type planktonic δ18O curve is dominated by 20 ka precession cycle, representing the impact of monsoon precipitation. In addition, the complete records of rapid climate change events also reveal an important role played by tropical regions in rapid climate change.