The theorical and empirical researches about port including seaport and riverport which is the most important infrastructure of one region or country have developed into a branch subject of humanity geography called port geography and main contents of transportation geography since 1950s. Based on review about the social-economic background changes of transportation geography research, we discussed the research progress and study contents of modern port geography, especially analyzed its important opinions of different research period, from these perspectives including its basal research categories, developing theory of port, ports system, hub port, port and its hinterland, marine shipping network, shipping company and port terminal company. Moreover, we analyzed the research progress and study contents of modern port geography in China, and the important opinions from foreign researchers on Chinese port system and shipping market competition. Then, we concluded and commented on the research characteristics of modern port geography, from its perspectives of research contents, research categories, research institutions and important research regions, which concluded its developing regularites and research path since 1950s. Finally, based on these discussions, we probed into the future research trends of modern port geography in detail, from the perspectives of research fields, research category and research institutions. This study concluded the research progress and developing regularity of modern port geography since 1950s, which will help enrich the theory system of this subject and its empirical research.