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地球科学进展  2019, Vol. 34 Issue (11): 1141-1151    DOI: 10.11867/j.issn.1001-8166.2019.11.1141
研究论文     
基于通量测量的稻田甲烷排放特征及影响因素研究
宋朝清1,2(),刘伟3,陆海波4,5,袁文平4,5()
1. 中国科学院西北生态环境资源研究院,冰冻圈科学国家重点实验室,甘肃 兰州 730000
2. 中国科学院大学,北京 100049
3. 中国科学院植物研究所,植被与环境变化国家重点实验室,北京 100093
4. 中山大学大气科学学院,广东省气候变化与自然灾害研究重点实验室,广东 珠海 519082
5. 南方海洋科学与工程广东省实验室,广东 珠海 519082
Characteristics and Drivers of Methane Fluxes from a Rice Paddy Based on the Flux Measurement
Chaoqing Song1,2(),Wei Liu3,Haibo Lu4,5,Wenping Yuan4,5()
1. State Key Laboratory of Cryospheric Sciences, Northwest Institute of Eco-Environment and Resources, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000, China
2. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
3. State Key Laboratory of Vegetation and Environmental Change, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100093, China
4. Guangdong Province Key Laboratory for Change and Natural Disaster Studies, School of Atmospheric Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangdong Zhuhai 519082, China
5. Southern Marine Science and Engineering Guangdong Laboratory, Guangdong Zhuhai 519082, China
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摘要:

稻田是大气甲烷(CH4)的重要来源之一,会直接加剧全球气候变暖。基于涡度相关方法,通过对湖南省益阳市水稻田的CH4通量进行连续测量,探讨来自水稻田的CH4通量特征、动态及其影响因素。结果表明:该地区水稻田的CH4通量具有显著的季节性变化特征,即在水稻营养生长阶段CH4通量最大,随后逐渐减少,在休耕阶段CH4通量最小。该地区水稻田的CH4通量在水稻营养生长和生殖生长阶段具有明显的日变化,在14:00-16:00达到日通量峰值,但在休耕阶段,CH4通量没有显著的日变化。空气温度是该地区水稻田CH4通量季节性变化最重要的控制因子,饱和水汽亏缺对CH4通量的季节性变化也具有一定影响。该地区水稻田的最大日平均CH4通量为0.69 μmol/(m2·s),出现在水稻营养生长阶段后期,整个观测时段的CH4排放总量约为28 g C/m2

关键词: 涡度相关水稻田CH4通量    
Abstract:

Rice paddies are an important anthropogenic source of methane (CH4) to the atmosphere, which aggravate the global warming greatly. CH4 fluxes from a rice paddy in Central China were continuously measured with the eddy covariance method in 2018. The characteristics, dynamics and drivers of the observed CH4 fluxes from this paddy field were subsequently analyzed. The results indicated that a distinct seasonal variation of daily CH4 fluxes was found over the whole observed period. Daily CH4 fluxes were the highest in the vegetative period, then decreased gradually, and became the lowest in the fallow period; observed CH4 fluxes had a clear single-peak diurnal pattern during the vegetative and reproductive periods, and reached daily peaks at about 14:00-16:00. However, no obvious diurnal variation in CH4 fluxes was observed during the fallow period; air temperature was the most important drivers that controlled the seasonal variation of CH4 fluxes from this paddy field, and Vapor Pressure Deficit (VPD) was also found related to the CH4 emissions; the largest daily CH4 flux was 0.69 μmol/(m2·s), occurred in the late of vegetative period, and the total amount of CH4 emissions over the whole observed period was about 28 g C/m2.

Key words: Eddy covariance    Rice paddy    Methane fluxes.
收稿日期: 2019-09-09 出版日期: 2019-12-31
ZTFLH:  P412.1  
基金资助: 国家自然科学基金面上项目“气候和土地利用变化对陆地—河流碳通量的影响研究”(31870459)
通信作者: 袁文平     E-mail: songchaoqing@lzb.ac.cn;yuanwp3@mail.sysu.edu.cn
作者简介: 宋朝清(1995-),男,湖北宜昌人,硕士研究生,主要从事稻田甲烷排放研究. E-mail:songchaoqing@lzb.ac.cn
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引用本文:

宋朝清,刘伟,陆海波,袁文平. 基于通量测量的稻田甲烷排放特征及影响因素研究[J]. 地球科学进展, 2019, 34(11): 1141-1151.

Chaoqing Song,Wei Liu,Haibo Lu,Wenping Yuan. Characteristics and Drivers of Methane Fluxes from a Rice Paddy Based on the Flux Measurement. Advances in Earth Science, 2019, 34(11): 1141-1151.

链接本文:

http://www.adearth.ac.cn/CN/10.11867/j.issn.1001-8166.2019.11.1141        http://www.adearth.ac.cn/CN/Y2019/V34/I11/1141

图1  研究区概况(a)研究区地理位置;(b)研究区风速和风向(0为正北方向)
图2  环境条件和碳通量的日变化(a)空气温度;(b)光量子通量密度;(c)饱和水汽亏缺;(d)CO2通量;(e)总生态系统生产;黑色误差线代表相应变量的标准差
图3  不同阶段CH4通量的日变化黑色误差线代表CH4通量的标准差
图4  环境条件和碳通量的季节性变化(a)空气温度和降水;(b)光量子通量密度;(c)饱和水汽亏缺;(d)CO2通量;(e)总生态系统生产
时间段空气温度/℃PPFD/[μmol/(m2·s)]VPD/kPaCO2通量/[μmol/(m2·s)]GEP/[μmol/(m2·s)]CH4通量/[μmol/(m2·s)]
最大值最小值平均值最大值最小值平均值最大值最小值平均值最大值最小值平均值最大值最小值平均值最大值最小值平均值
营养生长阶段32.7127.0930.95565.10199.21431.641.730.721.18-0.89-8.12-3.9931.4411.6721.640.690.410.53
生殖生长阶段31.7122.1927.28522.5453.99318.421.220.350.843.55-10.60-2.7036.9711.3223.040.500.150.29
成熟阶段24.0816.3219.51400.3027.84203.601.070.190.623.26-2.96-0.3919.795.0614.45
休耕阶段18.759.8415.62312.0025.10151.941.150.180.525.201.423.035.660.001.510.030.010.02
表1  不同阶段空气温度、PPFD、VPD、CO2通量、GEP和CH4通量的统计情况
图5  CH4通量的季节性变化
图6  CH4通量与(a)空气温度、(b)光量子通量密度、(c)饱和水汽亏缺和(d)总生态系统生产之间的关系
图7  非线性回归模型CH4通量模拟结果(a) CH4通量模拟值与观测值的比较(黑色交叉点);(b)整个观测时段的CH4通量模拟值
农田类型位置观测时段CH4排放/(g C/m2)参考文献
水稻田菲律宾2012年12月至2013年5月3.26[6]
水稻田美国2009—2015年46.10[7]
水稻田中国2016年6~11月19.20[12]
稻麦轮作中国2016年58.08[11]
水稻田中国2018年7~11月28.00本文
表2  基于涡度相关测量的水稻田CH4排放收支概况
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