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地球科学进展  2009, Vol. 24 Issue (9): 1015-1023    DOI: 10.11867/j.issn.1001-8166.2009.09.1015
研究论文     
海底热液活动区地微生物学研究中的分子生物学技术
李江涛,周怀阳,彭晓彤,吴自军
同济大学海洋地质国家重点实验室  上海  200092
Molecular Biological Techniques in Geomicrobiology of Seafloor Hydrothermal Vents
LI Jiangtao,Zhou Huaiyang,Peng Xiaotong,Wu Zijun
State Key Laboratory of Marine Geology, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092, China
 全文: PDF(1162 KB)  
摘要:

     海底热液活动区微生物生态及其相关研究一直是近年来海洋地微生物学研究的热点之一。有关发现不断挑战着人们对微生物的代谢机理、生存极限、元素地球化学循环作用等方面的传统认识。与传统的富集培养方法相比,主要基于16S rRNA基因和特征性功能基因系统的发育分析等技术为研究这一极端环境中栖息的微生物群落提供了更为系统和全面的手段。这些技术包括基因文库构建(16S rRNA和其它功能基因)、变性梯度凝胶电泳(DGGE)、末端限制性片段长度多态性分析(T-RFLP)、荧光原位杂交(FISH)以及定量PCR等。目前,上述技术手段广泛应用于全球海底热液活动区地微生物学的研究,在丰富地球物种多样性、调查微生物参与的元素地球化学循环过程、研究微生物与矿物的相互作用以及生命起源与演化等方面取得了大量的研究成果。简要介绍了常规分子生物学技术的基本原理及其在海底热液活动区地微生物学研究中的应用现状。
     

关键词: 海底热液活动地微生物学分子生物技术    
Abstract:

      Recently, microbial ecology and related phenomena of seafloor hydrothermal vents have been the focus of geomicrobiology. Discoveries from these extreme environments continue to challenge accepted notions about microbial metabolism, limits of life and elemental geochemical cycles. Compared with traditional cultivation, phylogenetic analyses based on the small subunit rRNA (16S rRNA) and certain diagnostic metabolic genes have provided systematic and comprehensive methods to study microbial communities inhabited in hydrothermal chimneys. Cultivation-independent molecular techniques include construction of gene library, DGGE, T-RFLP, FISH and quantitative PCR. At present, these approaches have been successfully applied into the studies of geomicrobiology in global seafloor hydrothermal vents. Moreover, lots of achievements have also been accomplished in the investigations of microbial diversity, processes of key element geochemical cycles involved with microbes, the interactions between microbes and minerals, the origin of life and their evolution. In this review, we briefly outline the principles of various methods and their applications in research of microbial ecology of hydrothermal vents.

Key words: Seafloor hydrothermal vent    Geomicrobiology    Molecular biological techniques
收稿日期: 2009-01-15 出版日期: 2009-09-10
:  P738.6  
基金资助:

国家自然科学基金项目“胡安·德富卡洋脊Endeavour段热液生态环境变化与地球化学制约机理研究”(编号:40532011)资助.

通讯作者: 李江涛     E-mail: ljtao98@126.com
作者简介: 李江涛(1981-),男,山东东营人,博士后,主要从事极端环境生物地球化学方面的研究. E-mail:ljtao98@126.com
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引用本文:

李江涛,周怀阳,彭晓彤,吴自军. 海底热液活动区地微生物学研究中的分子生物学技术[J]. 地球科学进展, 2009, 24(9): 1015-1023.

LI Jiangtao,Zhou Huaiyang,Peng Xiaotong,Wu Zijun. Molecular Biological Techniques in Geomicrobiology of Seafloor Hydrothermal Vents. Advances in Earth Science, 2009, 24(9): 1015-1023.

链接本文:

http://www.adearth.ac.cn/CN/10.11867/j.issn.1001-8166.2009.09.1015        http://www.adearth.ac.cn/CN/Y2009/V24/I9/1015

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