Airborne microorganisms play an essential role in the microbial propagation and maintenance of the ecosystem diversity, and also significantly affect the climate by acting as effective Ice Nucleus (IN) and Cloud Condensation Nuclei (CCN). The ocean is a vital source and destination for airborne microbes. Nevertheless, little information has been obtained on the distribution of abundance and diversity of airborne microorganisms over the ocean. This paper systematically reviewed the abundance, size distribution, and community structure of airborne microorganisms over the ocean, as well as various environmental and meteorological factors that control the distribution of microbes in marine aerosols. The commonly used methods for detecting airborne microorganisms and their development prospects were also discussed. We pointed out that sampling and detection of extremely low concentration microorganisms in marine aerosols are key problems to be solved in this field, and future research directions include the increase of the cruising observation in open oceans and combination of advanced molecular techniques and other traditional methods. This paper provides extensive and crucial information for subsequently in-depth research on airborne microorganisms over the ocean, revealing their sources, activities, climate and ecological effects.