The terrestrial transect approach was one of most valuable tools to study the response of vegetation dynamics of terrestrial ecosystems to global changes in climate, land use and atmospheric composition. By identifying the typical transect and spatial grid in the upper, middle and low reaches in the Heihe River Basin, the researchers of project will systematically investigate the characteristics of vegetation, soil, hydrology, geomorphology, meteorology, human activity and socio-economy. In addition, the corresponding database will be created. The objective of this study is to consummate the fieldobservation networks and form a research platform subjected to the basic eco-hydrological processes at the basin scale. It is expected that the implementation of this project will make the ecohydrological study at basin scale of our country to stride up to advanced levels in the world.