Silicon is the second most abundant element in the earth’s crust and plays an important role in soil formation, growth, and evolution of terrestrial higher plants, aquatic phytoplankton, and the carbon cycle. Studying the silicon biogeochemical cycle has become increasingly important under current accelerated climate change. In recent years, studies on the silicon cycle in terrestrial and oceanic systems have been relatively thorough, whereas those in atmospheric systems are lacking. Aerosols are important carriers of active components and geochemical cycles of elements in the atmosphere. To date, the compositions and sources of silicon in aerosols and the importance of silicon sedimentation load in some regions are not well understood. This restricts our understanding of the silicon cycle in the surface earth system. Based on the current research, this study summarizes the compositions of aerosol silicon and its coupling with other elements, reviews the application of emerging silicon isotopes in atmospheric particulate matter tracing, and discusses the ecological effects of long-distance transportation of silicon in coastal areas and the impacts of silicon nanoparticles on human health. Generally, silicon exists in aerosols mainly in the form of inorganic silicon, and the deposition of aerosol silicon in some offshore waters has a controlling effect on phytoplankton growth. Further research should focus on the generation and transformation mechanisms of aerosol silicon, silicon deposition, its influence on key processes of biogeochemical cycles, and the toxicological effects of silicon nanoparticles.