Groundwater, as a drinking water source for nearly one third of the world’s urban population, plays a strategic role in the development of urbanization. The object of this study is urban areas with the largest demand for water resources, the heaviest load of groundwater pollution and the most intense development of underground projects. This study sorted out the eco-hydrological problems such as the variation of the groundwater hydrological process, the groundwater pollution, and the urban heat island of groundwater in urban areas under the background of urbanization. Furthermore, the mechanism of changes in the quantity, quality and heat of groundwater was also systematically analyzed, and the intrinsic interaction among these three factors was revealed. The study showed that changes in land use and land cover caused by the urbanization are the main reasons for the variation of groundwater hydrological process. The pollution load of urbanization construction and domestic production waste has aggravated the deterioration of groundwater quality. The increase in vertical heat flux caused by urbanization gives rise to the warming of groundwater. By summarizing the eco-hydrological problems and causes of groundwater in urbanized areas, several suggestions were proposed:
Establishing the evaluation method and system of urban groundwater resources;
Speeding up the technological breakthroughs of groundwater pollution control;
Improving the regional control strategies for groundwater pollution;
Optimizing the allocation of groundwater resources. This study will provide the theoretical basis and technical support for ensuring urban water safety, building ecological civilized cities and further promoting the sustainable development of economy and society.