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Advances in Earth Science  2018, Vol. 33 Issue (6): 653-663    DOI: 10.11867/j.issn.1001-8166.2018.06.0653
    
Analysis on Development of Global Virtual Water Research Based on Bibliometric Method
Jinping Wang1,2(), Jiansheng Qu1,2, Jinzhu Ma1
1.College of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000, China
2.Lanzhou Library, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000, China
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Abstract  

In order to fully understand the overall status and research hotspot of international virtual water research, the literatures of international virtual water research from 1990 to 2016 were analyzed statistically with bibliometric method based on SCIE and SSCI database. It was found that the United States, the Netherlands and Switzerland had the strong research ability. The University of Twente occupied the leading position in the global virtual water research area. Some geographical cooperation characteristics were shown on the international cooperation of the global virtual water research. A certain scale had been found on the virtual water research in China, but there is still a big gap between China and countries of highest level in the world on the impact of research papers. The quality and comprehensive influence of research articles of China still have great potential for improvement.

Key words:  Virtual water      Water footprint      Bibliometrics      Water resources.     
Received:  29 July 2017      Published:  23 July 2018
ZTFLH:  P933  
Fund: Project supported by the Research Fund for Foreign Young Scholars of National Natural Science Foundation of China “Evaluating the impact of green water management strategies on crop water productivity”(No.41550110227).
About author: 

First author:Wang Jinping(1981-), male, Dezhou City, Shandong Province, Associate professor. Research areas include sustainable utilization of water resources. E-mail:wangjp@llas.ac.cn

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Jinzhu Ma

Cite this article: 

Jinping Wang, Jiansheng Qu, Jinzhu Ma. Analysis on Development of Global Virtual Water Research Based on Bibliometric Method. Advances in Earth Science, 2018, 33(6): 653-663.

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http://www.adearth.ac.cn/EN/10.11867/j.issn.1001-8166.2018.06.0653     OR     http://www.adearth.ac.cn/EN/Y2018/V33/I6/653

Fig.1  Annual changes of the paper numbers of virtual water research from 1990 to 2016
Fig.2  Top twenty countries based on published articles number from 1990 to 2016
Fig.3  The paper numbers changes in major countries from 2012 to 2016
序号 国家 发文量
/篇
总被引频次
/次
篇均被引
/(次/篇)
未被引用论文
比例/%
被引次数≥50
论文比例/%
被引次数≥100
论文比例/%
通讯作者
比例/%
H指数
1 美国 566 10 372 18.33 15.90 9.72 3.53 77.92 52
2 中国 306 3 308 10.81 15.03 4.90 0.65 86.60 29
3 荷兰 230 7 264 31.58 9.13 17.39 6.52 66.52 45
4 英国 206 4 083 19.82 15.05 13.11 2.43 63.59 36
5 澳大利亚 196 3 582 18.28 13.78 7.14 2.55 77.55 31
6 德国 180 3 715 20.64 11.67 11.67 3.33 64.44 32
7 意大利 138 1 667 12.08 18.84 5.07 0.72 78.26 22
8 西班牙 122 1 851 15.17 10.66 6.56 0.82 77.87 23
9 日本 100 1 410 14.10 20.00 7.00 1.00 66.00 20
10 瑞士 96 3 014 31.40 9.38 25.00 3.13 57.29 34
11 瑞典 95 2 412 25.39 9.47 15.79 6.32 68.42 25
12 印度 85 976 11.48 24.71 8.24 3.53 83.53 14
13 加拿大 83 917 11.05 20.48 3.61 1.20 66.27 16
14 法国 82 1 230 15.00 15.85 9.76 2.44 42.68 16
15 巴西 69 515 7.46 20.29 2.90 0.00 85.51 13
16 南非 63 444 7.05 23.81 0.00 0.00 77.78 11
17 以色列 57 1 133 19.88 15.79 12.28 0.00 91.23 18
18 奥地利 56 842 15.04 12.50 7.14 1.79 41.07 15
19 韩国 50 268 5.36 38.00 0.00 0.00 84.00 9
20 挪威 48 976 20.33 12.50 14.58 2.08 47.92 15
平均 / 141.4 2 498.95 16.51 16.64 9.09 2.10 70.22 23.8
Table 1  The influence statistics of the papers of major countries from 1990 to 2016
Fig.4  Comprehensive influence based on papers of the major countries from 1990 to 2016
Circle area represents the total times cited
Fig.5  Cooperation among major countries from 1990 to 2016
Fig.6  Top fifteen institutions based on published articles number from 1990 to 2016
序号 机构 发文量
/篇
总被引
频次
/次
篇均被引
/(次/篇)
被引次数
≥50论文
比例/%
被引次数
≥100论文
比例/%
通讯作者
比例
/%
H指数 未被引用
论文比例
/%
1 荷兰特温特大学 84 4 069 48.44 27.38 13.10 70.24 34 7.14
2 澳大利亚联邦科工组织 58 1 287 22.19 8.62 5.17 53.45 16 12.07
3 中国科学院 57 677 11.88 3.51 0.00 59.65 15 14.04
4 荷兰瓦格宁根大学 53 715 13.49 3.77 0.00 35.85 16 9.43
5 北京师范大学 44 532 12.09 6.82 0.00 56.82 12 11.36
6 美国德州农工大学 38 558 14.68 5.26 2.63 47.37 13 15.79
7 英国克兰菲尔德大学 32 704 22.00 15.63 0.00 90.63 14 6.25
8 联合国教科文组织 30 1 596 53.20 30.00 13.33 66.67 15 3.33
9 北京林业大学 29 536 18.48 17.24 0.00 82.76 11 10.34
10 瑞士联邦理工学院 28 873 31.18 17.86 7.14 17.86 12 7.14
11 以色列理工学院 28 602 21.50 14.29 0.00 78.57 11 10.71
12 荷兰代尔夫特理工大学 27 611 22.63 14.81 3.70 11.11 15 0.00
13 日本国家环境研究所 26 520 20.00 11.54 3.85 26.92 11 19.23
14 美国普渡大学 26 260 10.00 3.85 0.00 38.46 8 23.08
15 以色列本古里安大学 24 519 21.63 12.50 0.00 83.33 13 12.50
平均 / 38.93 937.27 22.89 12.87 3.26 54.65 14.4 10.83
Table 2  The influence statistics of the papers of major institutions from 1990 to 2016
Fig.7  Comprehensive influence based on papers of the major institutions from 1990 to 2016
Fig.8  Cooperation among major institutions from 1990 to 2016
序号 研究领域 发文量/篇 占比/% 序号 研究领域 发文量/篇 占比/%
1 环境科学与生态学 1 095 42.31 11 气象与大气科学 87 3.36
2 工程学 1 000 38.64 12 化学 82 3.17
3 水资源 753 29.10 13 商业与经济学 75 2.90
4 科技类其他主题 285 11.01 14 海洋学 67 2.59
5 农业 184 7.11 15 生物多样性与保育 45 1.74
6 海洋与淡水生物学 149 5.76 16 食品科技 45 1.74
7 地质学 143 5.53 17 辐射学、核子医学与医学影像 38 1.47
8 渔业 113 4.37 18 物理学 34 1.31
9 能源与燃料 97 3.75 19 材料科学 31 1.20
10 生物技术和应用微生物学 87 3.36 20 营造与建筑技术 28 1.08
Table 3  Major research areas involved in international virtual water research from 1990 to 2016
Fig.9  Main key words relating to international virtual water research from 1990 to 2016
Fig.10  The number changes of the main keywords from 2000 to 2016
The size of the circle indicates the frequency of keyword occurrences. The larger circle means the higher frequency, and the smaller circle means the lower the frequency of the keywords
序号 国家 关键词
1 美国 Water footprint;Greywater;Virtual water;Sustainability;Wastewater;Green water;Water scarcity;Water;Climate change;Food security;Water resources;Carbon footprint;Water reuse;Irrigation;China;Biofuels
2 中国 Water footprint;China;Virtual water;Input-output analysis;Water resources;Green water;Water scarcity;Blue water;Beijing;Greywater;Virtual water trade;Virtual water flow
3 荷兰 Water footprint;Virtual water;Greywater;Water scarcity;Sustainability;Virtual water trade;Black water;Green water;Blue water;Climate change;Water consumption;Water management
4 英国 Greywater;Water footprint;Virtual water;Sustainability;Water scarcity;Green water;Input-output analysis;Climate change;Recycling;Water supply;Groundwater;Life cycle assessment;Water resources
5 澳大利亚 Greywater;Water footprint;Virtual water;Sustainability;Life cycle assessment;Wastewater;Water use;Water scarcity;Irrigation;Water;Agriculture;Treatment;Water quality;Embodied water
6 德国 Greywater;Water footprint;Virtual water;Water scarcity;Green water;Blue water;Ecological sanitation;Agriculture;International trade;Water management;Anaerobic digestion
7 意大利 Water footprint;Virtual water;Water;Greywater;Sustainability;Diet;Life cycle assessment;Green water;Water scarcity;Blue water;Climate change;Green and blue water;Carbon footprint;Footprint;EU
8 西班牙 Water footprint;Virtual water;Greywater;Blue water;Green water;Irrigation;Industrial ecology;Life cycle assessment;Sustainability;Water scarcity;Virtual water trade;Water reuse;Input-output;Wastewater;Spain
9 日本 Water footprint;Greywater;Green water;Virtual water;Sustainability;Virtual water trade;Trade policy;Water scarcity;Water reuse;Input-output analysis;Water resources;Membrane bioreactor;Adaptation;Water-energy nexus;Impact pressure;Moving particle semi-implicit method;Shipping water
10 瑞士 Water footprint;Water scarcity;Virtual water;Life cycle assessment;Input-output analysis;Water resources;SWAT;SUFI-2
Table 4  Main key words on virtual water research of major courtries
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