High-resolution loess deposits are widely distributed in Arid Central Asia (ACA) and provide important records associated with dust transportation, paleoenvironmental and paleoclimatic evolution. The chronology is the foundation of the research into loess deposits as an environmental archive. In recent decades, the gradually developed optical dating method has been increasingly matured and become an important approach to establishing the loess-paleosol sequences. Here, we summarized and discussed previous work on loess chronology mainly based on optical dating approach in ACA. The following understandings have been listed: ① In comparison with optical dating method, the suitable material for 14C dating is uncommon in ACA. However, the dating range of luminescence dating is more extensive, and the dating materials are accessible. Thus, the optical dating is widely applicable in the establishment of loess framework in this area. ② Until now, the quartz Single Aliquot Regeneration (SAR) method can be applied to the establishment of loess-paleosol sequence since last glacial period. But several issues remain unaddressed. For example, the Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) signal sensitivity of quartz grains are low in some areas. Furthermore, the results of OSL dating of different grain sizes within a single sample are inconsistent in some areas. The solution of these problems still requires more methodological research. ③ The post-IR IRSL (pIRIR) and multiple elevated temperature stimulation (MET-pIRIR) protoCols of feldspar have basically overcome the anomalous fading issue in the traditional IRSL dating process. In ACA, the framework since MIS 7 can be established with K-feldspar luminescence dating method. Compared with quartz luminescence characteristics, the K-feldspar luminescence signals are more sensitive and exhibit a high saturation level. In specific applications, it is necessary to establish the age frame according to the luminescence sensitivity, the age of samples or other factors.