Advances in Earth Science
The interaction between ions and soil particles plays an important role in the mobilization and bioavailability of ions in soils, which is one of the main research areas of soil chemistry. The new method based on suspension Wien effect has been developed recently to determine the binding energy and adsorption energy between ions and soil particles. Compared with other methods on the basis of adsorption isotherm or ions activity, Wien effect method has more advantages including convenience and direct measurement. The term suspension Wien effect refers to the increase of electrical conductivity of suspension with increasing applied electrical field. In this review paper, we introduced the fundamentals of suspension Wien effect, the apparatus about the Wien effect measurement, and along with demonstrating their application to quantifying the particles-ions interactions for several systems of soils. Our studies indicated that divalent cations have larger binding energies and adsorption energies on soil particles than monovalent because of the electrostatic interaction. However, few studies about the interaction between Cr3+ and La3+ on soil particles showed that the binding energy and adsorption energy of trivalent cations are lower than those of divalent cations because of hydrolysis. Soil properties such as soil organic matter, soil pH, and iron oxides significantly affected the binding energy and adsorption energy of ions. Our results deepened our understanding about the nonspecific adsorption of ions in soil chemistry, and enlarged the research area of soil chemistry in fundamental and methodology.