Please wait a minute...
img img
Adv. Search
Advances in Earth Science  2009, Vol. 24 Issue (7): 724-733    DOI: 10.11867/j.issn.1001-8166.2009.07.0724
Investigation of Spatial Representativeness for Surface Flux Measurements in the Heihe River Basin
Shuang Xi1,Liu Shaomin1,Xu Ziwei1,Wang Weizhen2
1.State Key Laboratory of Remote Sensing Science, School of Geography, Beijing Normal University, Beijing  100875,China;
2.Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute,Chinese Academy of Sciences,Lanzhou  730000,China
Download:  PDF (1641KB) 
Export:  BibTeX | EndNote (RIS)      

It is very important to determine the land surface fluxes, including sensible heat fluxes and latent heat fluxes, for the issues involving many aspects of climate, agriculture, and water resources management. Nowadays, the Eddy Covariance system (EC) and the Large Aperture Scintillometer (LAS) are the main instruments measuring surface fluxes. The former is point observation and can observe hundreds of meters and the latter can observe area average fluxes in the scale of hundreds of meters to ten kilometers. In order to analyze the source area, we develop Eulerian analytical footprint models for the EC and LAS. Detailed descriptions of the theory basis and methods of the two models are given, and their differences are discussed. Simultaneous remote sensing and ground-based experiment was being carried out in the Heihe River Basin, its observing major components of water cycle were in three experiment areas, i.e., cold region, forest, and arid region hydrology experiment areas. This paper shows some outcomes of the flux footprint models application in A′Rou freeze/thaw observation station, Yingke irrigated oasis station, Dayekou Guantan forest station and Linze grassland station. The representatinve one day or one month is selected. The analysis of the source area and spatial representativeness of the EC and LAS is given. The difference of observing flux is discussed. In the end,it reveals that reasonable source area of LAS and EC can be derived from their flux footprint models and the footprint model is an effective and practical tool.

Key words:  Heihe River Basin      Large aperture scintillometer      Eddy covariance system      Analytical footprint models      Spatial representativeness     
Received:  12 March 2009      Published:  10 July 2009
E-mail this article
Add to my bookshelf
Add to citation manager
E-mail Alert
Articles by authors
LIU Chao-Min
XU Zi-Wei
WANG Wei-Zhen

Cite this article: 

Shuang Xi,Liu Shaomin,Xu Ziwei,Wang Weizhen. Investigation of Spatial Representativeness for Surface Flux Measurements in the Heihe River Basin. Advances in Earth Science, 2009, 24(7): 724-733.

URL:     OR

[1] Wang Jiemin, Wang Weizhen, Ao Yinhuan, et al. Turbulence flux measurements under complicated conditions[J].Advances in Earth Science, 2007,8(8):791-797.[王介民,王维真,奥银焕,等.复杂条件下湍流通量的观测与分析[J].地球科学进展,2007,8(8):791-797.]
[2] Lu Li,Liu Shaomin,Sun Minzhang,et al. Advances in the study of areal surface fluxes with large aperture scintillometer[J].Advances in Earth Science,2005, 20(9):932-938.[卢俐,刘绍民,孙敏章,等. 大孔径闪烁仪研究区域地表通量的进展[J]. 地球科学进展,2005, 20(9):932-938.]
[3] Gong Lijuan, Liu Shaomin, Shuang Xi, et al. Investigation of spatial representativeness for surface flux measurements with eddy covariance system and large aperture scintillometer[J].Plateau Meteorology, 2009, 28(2):246-257.[宫丽娟,刘绍民,双喜, 等.涡动相关仪和大孔径闪烁仪观测通量的空间代表性研究[J]. 高原气象, 2009, 28(2):246-257.]
[4] Schmid H P. Experimental design for flux measurements: Matching the scales of observations and fluxes[J].Agricultural and Forest Meteorology,1997,87:179-200.
[5] Gash J H C. A note on estimating the effect of a limited fetch on micrometeorological evaporation measurements[J].Boundary-Layer Meteorology,1986, 35: 409-414.
[6] Schmid H P, Oke T R. A model to estimate the source area contributing to turbulent exchange in the surfacelayer over patchy terrain[J].Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorology Society, 1990, 116: 965-988.
[7] Schimd H P. Source area for scalar and scalar flux[J].Boundary  Layer Meteorology,1994,67: 293-318.
[8] Horst T W, Weil J C. Footprint estimation for scalar flux measurements in the atmospheric surface-layer[J].Boundary-Layer Meteorology, 1992, 59: 279-296.
[9] Göckede M,Rebmann C, Foken T. A combination of quality assessment tools for eddy covariance measurements with footprint modeling for the characterization of complex sites[J].Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 2004, 127: 175-188.
[10] Rebmann C, Göckede M, Foken T, et al. Quality analysis applied on eddy covariance measurement at complex forest sites using footprint modeling[J].Theoretical and Applied Climatology,2005,80:121-141.
[11] Chu Lianghai, Liu Wenzhao, Zhu Yuanjun, et al. Spatial representation of flux data in gully region on the Loess plateau[J].Advances in Earth Science, 2009, 24(2):211-218.[楚良海,刘文兆,朱元骏,等. 黄土高原沟壑区通量数据空间代表性研究[J].地球科学进展,2009,24(2):211-218.]
[12] Peng Guliang, Liu Shaomin, Cai Xuhui, et al. Footprint analysis of turbulent flux measurement over heterogeneous surface[J].Chinese Journal of Atmospheric Sciences,2008,32(5):1 064-1 070.[彭谷亮,刘绍民,蔡旭晖,等.非均匀下垫面湍流通量观测的印痕分析[J].大气科学,2008,32(5):1 064-1 070.]
[13] Liu Shaomin, Hu Guang, Lu Li, et al. Estimation of regional evapotranspiration by TM/ETM+ Data over heterogeneous surfaces[J].Photogrammetric Engineering & Remote Sensing, 2007, 10(73):1 169-1 178.
[14] Li Xin,Ma Mingguo,Wang Jian,et al.Simultaneous remote sensing and groundbased experiment in the Heihe river basin: Scientific objectives and experiment design[J].Advances in Earth Science,2008,23(9):897-914.[李新,马明国,王建,等.黑河流域遥感—地面观测同步试验:科学目标与试验方案[J].地球科学进展, 2008,23(9):897-914.]
[15] Xu Ziwei,Liu Shaomin,Gong Lijuan, et al. Processing and quality assessment of eddy covariance system data[J].Advances in Earth Science, 2008,23(4):357-370.[徐自为,刘绍民,宫丽娟,等.涡动相关仪观测数据的处理与质量评价研究[J].地球科学进展,2008,23(4):357-370.]
[16] Lu Li,Liu Shaomin, Xu Ziwei, et al. Results from measurements of large aperture scintillometer over different surfaces[J].Journal of Applied Meteorological Science,2009, 20(2):171-178.[卢俐,刘绍民,徐自为,等.不同下垫面大孔径闪烁仪观测数据处理与分析[J].应用气象学报, 2009, 20(2):171-178.]
[17] Pasquill F, Smith F B. Atmospheric Diffusion[M]. England: West Sussex Press, 1983:142.
[18] Kormann R, Meixner F X. An analytic footprint model for neutral stratification[J].Boundary-Layer Meteorology, 2001, 99: 207-224.
[19] Schimd H P. Footprint modeling for vegetation atmosphere exchang studies:A review and perspective[J]. Agriculture and Forst Meteorology,2002,113: 159-183.
[20] Schimd H P. Spatial representativeness and the location bias of flux footprints over inhomogeneous areas[J].Agricultural and Forest Meteorology,1999,93:195-209.
[21] Wang T, Ochs G R, Clifford S F. A saturation-resistant optical scintillometer to measure C2n[J].Journal of Optical Society of America, 1978,68(3):334-338.
[22] Meijninger W M L, Hartogensis O K, Kohsiek W. Determination of area-averaged sensible heat fluxes with a large aperture scintillometer over a heterogeneous surface-Flevoland field experiment[J].Boundary-Layer Meteorology, 2002,105: 37-62.
[23] Kljun N, Rotach M W, Schmid H P. A three-dimensional backward lagrangian footprint model for a wide range of boundary-layer stratifications[J].Boundary-Layer Meteorology, 2002, 103: 205-226.
[24] Kljun N, Calanca P, Rotach M, et al. A simple parameterization for flux footprint predictions[J].Boundary-Layer Meteorology,2004,112: 503-523.
[25] Thomson D J. Criteria for the selection of stochastic models of particle trajectories in turbulent flow[J].Journal of Fluid Mechanics,1987,180: 529-556.

Cultivated Land Distribution Simulation Based on Grid in Middle Reaches of Heihe River Basin in the Historical Periods
[J]. 地球科学进展, 2013, 28(1): 71-78.
[12] Jin Rui, Li Xin, Yan Baoping, Luo Wanming, Li Xiuhong, Guo Jianwen, et al. Introduction of Eco-hydrological Wireless Sensor Network in the Heihe River Basin[J]. 地球科学进展, 2012, 27(9): 993-1005.
[13] Li Xin, Liu Shaomin, Ma Mingguo, Xiao Qing, Liu Qinhuo, Jin Rui, Che Tao. HiWATER: An Integrated Remote Sensing Experiment on Hydrological and Ecological Processes in the Heihe River Basin[J]. 地球科学进展, 2012, 27(5): 481-498.
[14] Li Xin, Cheng Guodong, Kang Ersi, Xu Zhongmin, Nan Zhuotong, Zhou Jian. Digital Heihe River Basin. 3: Model Integration[J]. 地球科学进展, 2010, 25(8): 851-865.
[15] Li Xin,Cheng Guodong,Ma Mingguo,Xiao Qing,Jin Rui,Ran Youhua,Zhao Wenzhi,Feng Qi. Digital Heihe River Basin. 4: Watershed Observing System[J]. 地球科学进展, 2010, 25(8): 866-876.
No Suggested Reading articles found!