Please wait a minute...
img img
Adv. Search
Advances in Earth Science  2008, Vol. 23 Issue (2): 129-141    DOI: 10.11867/j.issn.1001-8166.2008.02.0129
Articles     
Spatial scaling links the information across scales:A Review of Methodologies Used in Regional Eco-hydrological Modeling
Wu Jianghua1,2,Zhao Pengxiang1,4,Nigel Roulet 1,2,3,Jonathan Seaquist 5,Peng Changhui6
1.Department of Geography, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec H3A 2K6, Canada;
2.Global Environmental and Climate Change Centre (GEC3),Quebec H3A 2K6, Canada;3.McGill School of Environment, McGill University, Montreal Quebec, Canada;
4.College of Forestry, Northwest A & F University, Yangling 712100,China;
5.Department of Physical Geography & Ecosystems Analysis,Lund University,Sölvegatan 12,223 62,Lund,Sweden;
6.Institut des Sciences de L'environnement, Université du Québec à Montréal, Montréal H3C 3P8,Canada
Download:  PDF (347KB) 
Export:  BibTeX | EndNote (RIS)      
Abstract  

Spatial scaling has been one of the fundamental problems in eco-hydrological modeling over the past two decades. The input parameters for regional climate change impact research operating at a 1~50 km resolution cannot be directly derived from GCM (general circulation model) operating at a 100~500 km resolution. Conversely, large scale eco-hydrological models can only simulate the grid-based integrated response instead of directly parameterizing the small-scale earth surface processes. Therefore, upscaling methodology is required to scale up the information derived from the small-scale to the information required for the large-scale models; and downscaling methodology is required to scale down the information from large scale model, i.e. GCM, to the information required for regional eco-hydrological models, which operate at a much smaller scale than the one for a GCM. Several methodologies have been developed over the past two decades to undertake these non-trivial upscaling and downscaling tasks. In this paper, we discuss how the upscaling and downscaling schemes have been implemented in eco-hydrological modeling. 
Two primary downscaling schemes are reviewed in this paper. The first is empirical statistical downscaling, which disaggregates the information through establishing the empirical statistical relationships that link the information between small scale and large scale by comparing the large-scale values with long-term historical observation. The second scheme is dynamic downscaling, which disaggregates information by downscaling the information generated from dynamically coupling a RCM(regional climate model) with a GCM. Two upscaling schemes, empirical statistical upscaling and mosaic upscaling, are examined in this paper. Empirical statistical upscaling is achieved by assuming that the sub-grid variability of environmental variables can be represented by a probability density function (PDF), such as the VIC (variable infiltration capacity) model and the gamma distribution model. Mosaic upscaling scheme subdivides a big grid into several patches and the environmental variables are evaluated separately for each patch, and then averaged. We suggest an approach that combines the mosaic and PDF scheme for upscaling the modeling outputs from catchment to global scales.

Key words:  Eco-hydrological modeling      Spatial scaling      Downscaling      Upscaling     
Received:  05 December 2007      Published:  10 February 2008
P33  
Service
E-mail this article
Add to my bookshelf
Add to citation manager
E-mail Alert
RSS
Articles by authors

Cite this article: 

Wu Jianghua,Zhao Pengxiang,Nigel Roulet,Jonathan Seaquist,Peng Changhui. Spatial scaling links the information across scales:A Review of Methodologies Used in Regional Eco-hydrological Modeling. Advances in Earth Science, 2008, 23(2): 129-141.

URL: 

http://www.adearth.ac.cn/EN/10.11867/j.issn.1001-8166.2008.02.0129     OR     http://www.adearth.ac.cn/EN/Y2008/V23/I2/129

[1] Milkereit BEaton D. Imaging and interpreting the shallow crystalline crust [J]. Tectonophysics1998286: 5-18.

[2] Salisbury M HMilkereit BBleeker B. Seismic imaging of massive sulfide depositsPart I: Rock properties [J]. Economic Geology199691: 821-828.

[3] Milkereit BEaton DWu Jet al. Seismic imaging of massive sulfide depositsPart II: Reflection seismic profiling [J]. Economic Geology199691: 829-834.[4] Eaton DGuest SMilkereit Bet al. Seismic imaging of massive sulfide depositsPart III: Borehole seismic imaging of near-vertical structures [J]. Economic Geology199691: 835-840.

[5] Salisbury MEaton DBleeker Wet al. Seiasmic prospecting for massive sulphides [EB/OL]. http:www.mar.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/science/review/e/pdf/seismic_prospecting.pdf2000.

[6] Eaton D WMilkereit BSalisbury M. Seismic methods for deep mineral exploration: Mature technologies adapted to new targets [J]. The Leading Edge2003226: 580-585.

[7] Salisbury MSnyder D. Mineral Deposits of Canada [EB/OL]. http:gsc.nrcan.gc.ca/mindep/method/seismic/index_e.php2006.

[8] Milkereit BBerrer E KKing A Ret al. Development of 3-D seismic exploration technology for deep nickel-copper deposits-A case history from the Sudbury basinCanada [J]. Geophysics2000656: 1 890-1 899.

[9] Yang WencaiLi YoumingLi Shixiong. Application of Seismic Tomography [M]. Beijing: The Geological Publishing House1993.[杨文采,李幼铭,李世雄.应用地震层析成像[M].北京:地质出版社,1993.]

[10] Xu MingcaiGao JinghuaChai Mingtaoet al. Research of seismic method for base metal exploration [J]. Geological Exploration for Non-ferrous Metals199764:232-237.[徐明才,高景华,柴铭涛,等.金属矿地震勘查的方法技术[J].有色金属矿产与勘查,199764):232-237.]

[11] Xu MingcaiGao JinghuaChai Mingtaoet al. A study of seismic method for detecting concealed metallic deposits [J]. Geophysical & Geochemical Exploration1997216: 468-474. [徐明才,高景华,柴铭涛,等.寻找隐伏金属矿的地震方法技术研究[J].物探与化探,1997216):468-474.]

[12] Eaton D W. Weak elastic-wave scattering from massive sulfide orebodies [J]. Geophysics1999641: 289-299.

[13] Gao Xing. Advance and Review in seismic tomography research [J]. Progress in Geophysics2000154: 41-45.[高星.地震层析成像研究的回顾与展望[J].地球物理学进展,2000154):41-45.]

[14] Cheng GuMa ZaitianGeng Jianhuaet al. A review on the growth of seismic tomography [J]. Progress in Exploration Geophysics2002253: 6-12.[成谷,马在田,耿建华,等.地震层析成像发展回顾[J].勘探地球物理进展,2002253):6-12.]

[15] Xu MingcaiGao JinghuaRong Lixinet al. An experimental study of seismic scattering event method in the Caijiaying polymetallic ore district [J]. Geophysical & Geochemical Exploration2003271: 49-54.[徐明才,高景华,荣立新,等.散射波地震方法在蔡家营多金属矿区的试验研究[J].物探与化探,2003271):49-54.]

[16] Bohlen TMuller CMilkereit B. Elastic seismic wave scattering from massive sulfide orebodies: On the role of composition and shape [C]Eaton DMilkereit BSalisbury Meds. Hardrock Seismic Exploration. Society of Exploration Geophysicists. TulsaOklahoma2003: 70-89.

[17] Xu MingcaiGao JinghuaRong Lixinet al. Application prospects of the seismic method as discussed from the experimental effects of the method for metal exploration [J]. Geology in China2004311: 108-112.[徐明才,高景华,荣立新,等.从金属矿地震方法的试验效果探讨其应用前景[J].中国地质,2004311):108-112.]

[18] Xu MingcaiGao JinghuaRong Lixinet al. Combing exploration technique of the ground seismic tomography and the high-resolution seismic method [J]. Geology and Prospecting2005 414: 83-87.[徐明才,高景华,荣立新,等.地面地震层析成像和高分辨率地震联合勘探技术[J].地质与勘探,2005414):83-87.]

[19] Lei DongHu Xiangyun. Review of seismic tomography methods [J]. Journal of Seismological Research2006294: 418-426.[雷栋,胡祥云.地震层析成像方法综述[J].地震研究,2006294):418-426.]

[20] Li CanpingLiu XueweiWang Xiangchunet al. Seismic wave scattering theroryscattering characteristics and its application [J]. Progress in Exploration Geophysics2005282: 81-89.[李灿苹,刘学伟,王祥春,等.地震波的散射理论和散射特征及其应用 [J].勘探地球物理进展,2005282):81-89.][21] Gou LiminLiu XueweiLei Penget al. Review of seismic survey in mining exploration: Theory and reflection seismic methods [J]. Progress in Exploration Geophysics2007301: 16-2446.[勾丽敏,刘学伟,雷鹏,等.金属矿地震勘探技术方法研究综述[J].勘探地球物理进展,2007301):16-2446.][22] Zhao D PLei J SInoue Tet al. Deep structure and origin of the Baikal rift zone [J]. Earth and Planetary Science Letters2006243: 681-691.

[23] Shomali Z HRoberts R GPedersen L Bet al. Lithospheric structure of the Tornquist zone resolved by nonlinear P and S teleseismic tomography along the TOR array [J].Tectonophysics2006416: 133-149.

[24] Lei J SZhao D P. Teleseismic P-wave tomography and the upper mantle structure of the central Tien Shan orogenic belt [J]. Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors2007162: 165-185.

[25] Zhao D P. Seismic images under 60 hotspots: Search for mantle plumes [J]. Gondwana Research200712:335-355.

[26] Milkereit BGreen Athe Sudbury Working Group. Deep geometry of the Sudbury Structure from seismic reflection profiling [J]. Geology199220:807-811.

[27] Milkereit BBerrer E KWatts Aet al. Development of 3-D seismic exploration technology for Ni-Cu depositsSudbury Basin [C]Gubins A Geds. Proceeding of Exploration 97: Fourth Decennial Conference on Mineral Exploration.GEO/FX1997:439-448.

[28] Roy BClowes R M. Seismic and potential-field imaging of the Guichon Creek batholithBritish ColumbiaCanadato delineate structures hosting porphyry copper deposits [J]. Geophysics2000655: 1 418-1 434.

[29] Salisbury MHarvey CMatthews L. The acoustic properties of ores and host rocks in hardrock terranes [C]Eaton DMilkereit BSalisbury Meds. Hardrock Seismic Exploration. Society of Exploration Geophysicists. TulsaOklahoma2003:9-19.

[30] Adam EPerron GArnold Get al. 3D seismic imaging for VMS deposit explorationMatagamiQuebec [C]Eaton DMilkereit BSalisbury Meds. Hardrock Seismic Exploration. Society of Exploration Geophysicists.TulsaOklahoma2003:229-246.

[31] Calvert A JPerron GLi Y. A comparison of 2D seismic lines shot over the Ansil and Bell Allard mines in the Abitibi Greenstone belt [C]Eaton DMilkereit BSalisbury Meds. Hardrock Seismic Exploration. Society of Exploration Geophysicists.TulsaOklahoma2003:164-177.

[32] Bellefleur GMatthews LRoberts Bet al. Downhole seismic imaging of the Victor kimberliteJames Bay LowlandsOntario: A feasibility study [EB/OL].http:dsp-psd.pwgsc.gc.ca/Collection/M44-2005-C1E.pdf2005.

[33] Salisbury M HMilkereit BAscough Get al. Physical properties and seismic imaging of massive sulfides [J]. Geophysics2000656: 1 882-1 889.

[34] Gingerich J CMatthews L WPeshko M J. The development of new exploration technologies at Noranda: Seeing more with hyperspectral and deeper with 3-D seismic [J]. CIM Bulletin200295: 56-61.

[35] Drummond B JGoleby B ROwen A Jet al. Seismic reflection imaging of mineral systems: Three case histories [J]. Geophysics2000656:1 852-1 861.[36] Calvert A JLi Y X. Seismic reflection imaging over a massive sulfide deposit at the Matagami mining campQubec [J]. Geophysics1999641: 24-32.

[37] Roberts BZaleski EPerron Get al. Seismic exploration of the Manitouwadge Greenstone BeltOntario: A case history [C]Eaton DMilkereit BSalisbury Meds. Hardrock Seismic Exploration. Society of Exploration Geophysicists. TulsaOklahoma2003:110-126.

[38] Stevenson FHiggs R M ADurrheim R J. Seismic imaging of precious and Base-metal deposit in Southern Africa [C]Eaton DMilkereit BSalisbury Meds. Hardrock Seismic Exploration. Society of Exploration Geophysicists. TulsaOklahoma2003:141-156.

[39] Eaton DMilkereit BSalisbury Met al. Hardrock seismic exploration [C]Society of Exploration Geophysicists.TulsaOklahoma2003.

[40] Lü QingtianShi DanianZhao Jinhuaet al. Seismic method for deeper mineral exploration: Problems and prospects—A case study of tongling ore district [J]. Geological Bulletin of China2005243: 211-218.[吕庆田,史大年,赵金花,等.深部矿产勘查的地震学方法:问题与背景[J].地质通报,2005243):211-218.]

[41] Tang Kuilian. Relationship and its significance between energy minerals and metalnonmetal minerals [J]. Geological Science and Technology Abroad19951393:1-11.[汤葵联. 能源矿产与金属、非金属矿产的相互关系及其重要意义[J].国外地质科技,19951393:1-11.]

No Suggested Reading articles found!