The annual average temperature of the overall Shiyang river basin has a continuous warming trend for the recent 46 years, with 1994 being significantly warm. Compared with the previous warming, the average temperature increased by 1.0℃, and linear warming rate was 7 times faster. After the warming, annual rainfall was increased by 6.5% (about 16.1mm), runoff from mountain pass was slightly decreased (about 220 million m3), and the water table rapidly lowered. The runoff from mountains pass dropping slightly occurred in the context of decreasing mountain precipitation. Human activities were the main reasons which caused the changing of midstream and downstream utilization volume in the Shiyang river basin. Vegetation monitoring indicates that the area of sand meadow vegetation mainly of sparse vegetation is reducing rapidly and vegetation type is degenerating in the Shiyang River basin, vegetation coverage area and the basin water level were negatively correlated. Based on the climate change and human activities, the ecological environment is worsening in Shiyang river Basin.