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Advances in Earth Science  2006, Vol. 21 Issue (4): 417-423    DOI: 10.11867/j.issn.1001-8166.2006.04.0417
Exploitation of Deep Groundwater with Relevant Issues of Earth Fissures at Hengshui Area in North China
Wang Xiuyan1,2,Wang Jinzhe2,Han Shuangping2,Zang Yizhong2,Chen Jiang2,Li Xiangquan2
1.College of Civil Engineering, Tongji University,Shanghai 200092, China; 2.Instituteof Hydrogeology and Environmental Geology, Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences,Shijiazhuang 050061,China
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    The earth fissure is one of the geological hazards in North China Plain. It is developing continually in recent years. More than 573 Earth fissures have been found since 1995.From 1995 to 2005 in Hengshui, 4 new fissures were found in one area of North China Plain. Earth fissures directly lead to cultivated land cracking, irrigation system leakage, house and hydraulic facilities damages as well as pollution of groundwater. It not only seriously threatens human being,economy construction in cities and villages,but also brings countless damage and hidden danger to descendants. Therefore, the study of Earth fissure  attracts great attention of concerned experts.
    We found three-Earth fissures that had been developing in recent years around the depression cone of groundwater in Hengshui area:①.Nanzhangjiacun village at Shenxian County in November, 2003;②. Nanqinglin village of Wuyi County —Hanguan village at Fucheng County in June, 1995; ③. Shuipo village of Jianguo town at Gucheng County in May, 2002.The result of geophysical prospecting work shows that Earth fissures are developing obviously in different way on the Earth surface and underground in depth,width,etc. The earth fissure on the Earth surface is wider in the upper part and is narrower with the depth. Reversely, the earth fissures of underground are narrower in the upper part and is wider with depth.Ground fissures are usually developed as a fissure zone underground in the Hengshui area with its width of 10-38m and depth of burial of 60-120m. The geophysical prospecting shows the dip of axes for underground fissure zone to the steep, 75-88 . The terminal fissures of the same fissures zone are different in depth burial. Usually the difference in vertical depth is about 10-30m. The earth fissures that we can see on the earth surface are only the seriously active part in the earth fissure zone. They may be wider and longer with effects on the human activities. Even the other side may become active.
    The investigation shows, on one hand, earth fissures in the Hengshui area is consistent extending along the geotectonic directions. On the other hand, the earth fissures are all distributed close to the juncture between the accumulation at the channel belt and the interchannel zone around subsidence basin of different soil masses. Analysis indicates that the geotectonic movements are the direct reason to form some hidden fissure plane in the soil mass or the hidden earth fissures. The different origins of the soil mass provide the favourable conditions for the ground fissures development.
    Datum of deep layer drilling ,deep groundwater exploration, local hydrogeological condition, drawdown of deep and shallow water exploration in recent 35 years and earth fissures development of different areas proved  better correlation with exploration drawdown of deep groundwater than with exploration drawdown of shallow groundwater and the ground fissures developed are deeper than drawdown of groundwater. This is closely related to the deeper groundwater depression cone, geothermal exploitation and oil exploitation,etc.
    To sum up, the earth fissures are usually developed around the depression cone of groundwater as a fissure zone underground in the Hengshui area. It is the result of geological tectonic activities of different periods, tectonic activity form hidden earth fissures. And exploitation of ground water is also the main reason that caused land subsidence and earth fissures developing in hard soil area in North China. It will be guidance for research mechanism of earth fissure and for preventing the effect that exploiting deep groundwater acted on geological environment.

Key words:  Earth fissures zone      Geological environment hazards geophysical prospecting.      Deep groundwater      Earth fissures     
Received:  26 October 2005      Published:  15 April 2006
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Wang Xiuyan,Wang Jinzhe,Han Shuangping,Zang Yizhong,Chen Jiang,Li Xiangquan. Exploitation of Deep Groundwater with Relevant Issues of Earth Fissures at Hengshui Area in North China. Advances in Earth Science, 2006, 21(4): 417-423.

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