This paper makes a brief exposition of definition of wetland, feature, discipline system, study object and main tasks of wetland science and main characteristics of international wetland science development. It also set forth a systematic introduction on hot points and forward position fields and development trend of international wetland science research and priority property and prospect of Chinese wetland science research in the 21st century. The main hot points and forward position fields of wetland research in the world are as follows, classification, formation, development, succession, reconstruction of paleoenvironment, ecological process and dynamics, greenhouse gases and greenhouse effect and global change, health, assessment, creation wetland, constructed wetland, restoration and reconstruction of degradation wetland, biodiversity, model, mapping, wise utilization of wetland, peatland and peat, conservation and management of wetland, application of new technique and instrument. It summarizes the obstacle factors that block the development of Chinese wetland science. It involves in week basic theory and applied basic theory research, backward instrument and technique, unreasonable structure of wetland scientist team, short of advanced research installations and base for wetland ecological process monitor research and insufficient fund. In order to develop Chinese wetland research, deep basic theory research of wetland science should be strengthened, it includes definition, concept, classification, formation, development and succession, ecological process, biodiversity, greenhouse gas and global change, mechanism of wetland degradation. The construction of the net system of ecological test station and monitoring station of wetland, multifunction imitation test field of wetland ecological process, automatic monitoring instruments are needed.