Fractal and chaos theory is a subject on entering a kind of special disordered state in the process of system evolution. In this paper, based on the random and indefinite of regional natural disasters, the space-time fractal dimension characteristic of the environmental hazards in Xinjiang line of New Eurasian Continental Bridge is studied by using the fractal and chaos theory. The analysis of 38 years hazard data shows: the environmental hazards in Xinjiang line have self-similarity not only in the time alignment (volume fractal dimensionDfvaried from 0. 8302 to 1. 437), but in the space alignment (informative fractal dimensionDIvaried from 0.0997 to 0.1272). Moreover, except for showing the grades of environmental hazards as time alignment by the relationship that volume fractal dimensionDfis in inverse proportion to the complicity of hazards, and the space alignment can reveal the irregularity of environmental hazards distribution. Results from this is useful for us to recognize the inner regularity and dynamic characteristic of the hazards.