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地球科学进展  2009, Vol. 24 Issue (11): 1195-1201    DOI: 10.11867/j.issn.1001-8166.2009.11.1195
综述与评述     
海洋浮游生态系统中小型浮游动物的生态功能
张武昌1,张翠霞1,2,肖天1
1.中国科学院海洋研究所海洋生态和环境科学重点实验室,山东青岛266071; 2.中国科学院研究生院,北京100049
Role of Microzooplankton in Marine Planktonic Ecosystem
ZHANG Wuchang1, ZHANG Cuixia1,2, XIAO Tian1
1.Key Laboratory of Marine Ecology and Environmental Sciences, Institute of Oceanology,Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071, China;  2.Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
 全文: PDF(1027 KB)  
摘要:

小型浮游动物在海洋生态系统中的作用,主要指有多少能量通过小型浮游动物传递到桡足类,从而比较沿“浮游植物→中型浮游动物”和“浮游植物+细菌→小型浮游动物→中型浮游动物”两条食物链到达中型浮游动物的能流大小。为达到这个目的,需要研究各个能流路径的传递效率,即能量在各个营养级(初级生产——小型浮游动物,细菌生产——小型浮游动物,小型浮游动物的生长率,小型浮游动物——中型浮游动物)的传递效率。综述了国内外对上述营养级传递效率的研究现状,以期为我国的同类研究提供参考。浮游植物初级生产力被小型浮游动物摄食的比例平均为每天60%~75%,大大高于桡足类对浮游植物初级生产力的摄食压力每天10%。海洋浮游细菌的二次生产力相当于初级生产力的30%。其中80%~180%被小型浮游动物摄食。小型浮游动物的毛生长率为30%~40%,生产力是初级生产力的21%~34%。在西班牙西北部沿海,桡足类每天摄食2%~51%小型浮游动物生产力。因此,桡足类通过微食物网摄食的能量是初级生产力的0.4%~17%,与桡足类摄食初级生产的10%处于同一量级。不考虑碎屑提供的能流,小型浮游动物对桡足类饵料的贡献为20%以上,甚至可高达50%。

关键词: 小型浮游动物浮游生态系统海洋    
Abstract:

Microzooplankton is heterotrophic planktons in the size range of 0~200 mm. They graze on the phytoplankton primary production and bacteria production. At the same time, they are food items of planktonic copepods. Role of microzooplankton in marine pelagic ecosystem is (1) the magnitude of energy transferred from microzooplankton to copepods and (2) the contribution of microzooplankton to the food item (microzooplankton and phytoplankton) of copepods. The energy transfer efficiencies between every trophic level (primary production-microzooplankton, bacterial secondary productionmicrozooplankton, microzooplankton growth efficiency, microzooplankton-mesozooplankton) should be studied. This paper reviewed the status of above mentioned energy transfer efficiencies in order to provide references to microzooplankton studies in China. About 60%~75% of Phyplankton primary production is grazed by microzooplankton per day. This value is significantly larger than grazing pressure by copepods (10% d-1). The secondary production of marine planktonic bacteria equals 30% of primary production. About 80%~180% of the bacteria production was grazed by microzooplankton. The gross growth efficiency (GGE) of microzooplankton is 30%~40%. Therefore, microzoopolankton production is 21%~34% of the primary production. Copepods grazing pressure on microzooplankton production is 2%~51% per day (north coastal Spain). Thus, energy flow from microbial food web to copepod should be 0.4%~17% of the primary production, which is in the same level with the contribution of primary production. If the contribution of detritus was not considered, microzooplankton contributed more than 20% (some times as high as 50%) of the copepod food ingestion. Marine planktonic food web is a complex system. More studies are needed to elucidate every details of the production and transfer efficiency of every trophic level and, in the case of microzooplankton, of every group.

Key words: Microzooplankton    Planktonic ecosystem    Ocean
收稿日期: 2009-01-07 出版日期: 2001-11-10
:  Q178.53  
基金资助:

国家自然科学基金项目“小型浮游动物(microzooplankton)在我国近海浮游生态系统中的作用”(编号:40876085)和“南海北部基础生物生产过程及其对碳循环的调控研究——深化与集成”(编号:90711006);国家重点基础研究发展计划项目“我国近海生态系统食物产出的关键过程及其可持续机理”(编号:2006CB400604);国家自然科学基金创新群体项目“我国典型海域生态系统演变过程与机制”(编号:40821004)资助.

通讯作者: 张武昌(1973-),男,山东济南人,副研究员,主要从事海洋浮游生态学研究.     E-mail: wuchangzhang@ms.qdio.ac.cn
作者简介: 张武昌(1973-),男,山东济南人,副研究员,主要从事海洋浮游生态学研究. E-mail:wuchangzhang@ms.qdio.ac.cn
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引用本文:

张武昌,张翠霞,肖天. 海洋浮游生态系统中小型浮游动物的生态功能[J]. 地球科学进展, 2009, 24(11): 1195-1201.

ZHANG Wuchang, ZHANG Cuixia, XIAO Tian. Role of Microzooplankton in Marine Planktonic Ecosystem. Advances in Earth Science, 2009, 24(11): 1195-1201.

链接本文:

http://www.adearth.ac.cn/CN/10.11867/j.issn.1001-8166.2009.11.1195        http://www.adearth.ac.cn/CN/Y2009/V24/I11/1195


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