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Advances in Earth Science  2021, Vol. 36 Issue (7): 763-772    DOI: 10.11867/j.issn.1001-8166.2021.070
    
Review and Prospect of the Geomorphology of Sediment Creep in Sea Areas
Xiaochuan WU1,2(),Liming OUYANG1,2,Xiaozhong GUO1,2,Yanling HUANG1,2,Zhenhua Huang1,2,Wei Li3
1.National Joint Local Engineering Research Center for Shale Gas Exploration and Development,Chongqing Institute of Geology and Mineral Resources,Chongqing 401120,China
2.Key Laboratory of Shale Gas Exploration,Ministry of Natural Resources,Chongqing Institute of Geology and Mineral Resources,Chongqing 401120,China
3.Key Laboratory of Marginal Sea Geology,South China Sea Institute of Oceanology,Chinese Academy of Sciences,Guangzhou 510301,China
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Abstract  

Sediment creep as the precursor and indicator of the destruction of the submarine stratum, which can evolve into a large-scale submarine landslide, poses a huge threat to marine engineering construction and human life safety. Sediment creep morphology is mainly found to develop in the northern hemisphere through literature sorting, which is manifested by seafloor undulations composed of troughs and ridges. The main identification marks of sediment creep morphology are irregular changes in the morphology of troughs and ridges and their strikes extend along the water depth line and shear planes offset the troughs and ridges. Seismic activity, structural uplift, high deposition rate and formation pressure, gas-bearing formation and hydrate decomposition, etc., can all lead to the occurrence of sediment creep. However, many seafloor undulations suspected of sediment creep have been discovered in the process of previous research. The majority current research focuses on how to prove or falsify if these seafloor undulations are sediment creep. The slip deformation rate and the bottom interface of creep and its relationship with the underlying structure, the study of the formation process and evolution trend of sediment creep, etc., help to further determine the sediment creep, but its disaster evaluation work is rarely involved. Therefore, subsequent studies on sediment creep should strengthen the delineation and characterization of the bottom interface of sediment creep, and pay attention to the numerical and physical simulation studies of the formation process and evolution trend of sediment creep, which could contribute to the deep understanding of sediment creep and provide important information for evaluation of its disaster level.

Key words:  Sediment creep      Seafloor undulations      Bottom interface of sediment creep      Pre-existing structures      Separation and offset     
Received:  27 January 2021      Published:  20 August 2021
ZTFLH:  P737.2  
Fund: the Open Fund Project of Key Laboratory of Ocean and Marginal Sea Geology, Chinese Academy of Sciences "Geometric and instability analysis of submarine creep folds around Dongsha Islands"(OMG2019-08);The National Natural Science Foundation of China "Formation mechanism and instability analysis of a submarine creep zone in the Pearl River Mouth Basin, northern South China Sea"(41876054)
About author:  WU Xiaochuan (1991-), male, Chongqing City, Engineer. Research areas include seismogeology. E-mail: hsiaochuanwu@hotmail.com
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Xiaochuan WU
Liming OUYANG
Xiaozhong GUO
Yanling HUANG
Zhenhua Huang
Wei Li

Cite this article: 

Xiaochuan WU,Liming OUYANG,Xiaozhong GUO,Yanling HUANG,Zhenhua Huang,Wei Li. Review and Prospect of the Geomorphology of Sediment Creep in Sea Areas. Advances in Earth Science, 2021, 36(7): 763-772.

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http://www.adearth.ac.cn/EN/10.11867/j.issn.1001-8166.2021.070     OR     http://www.adearth.ac.cn/EN/Y2021/V36/I7/763

Fig. 1  Distribution of submarine creep zones a and the schematic diagram of creeping morphology b
The locations of creep zones based on references [5~32]
Fig. 2  The marked sections of sediment creep in worldwide modified after references 121418222631])
(a)~(c) Aquitaine slopes; (d) Italian waters; (e) and (f) Caspian Sea; (g) Arctic waters; (h) and (i) Pearl River Canyons in the South China Sea
位置沉积物蠕动槽脊的形态特征参考文献
日本海槽与生长正断层有位置关联性、脊幅度朝下斜坡方向增大,槽脊分布规律24
波弗特海槽脊地层内部发育同沉积正断层且发生构造负反转25
阿基坦陆缘槽脊地层内部发育小型铲式断层、槽充填加厚22
阿尔沃兰海脊尖锐、发育向陆倾的上斜坡翼和向海倾的下斜坡翼、头部无断层、槽平行于水深线延伸23
里海宽脊和窄槽、脊的顶部较为平坦、槽脊形态无规律变化18
马尔马拉海脊下斜坡翼坡度达40°、脊幅度随水深增加而增大、内部断面倾角大(30°~40°)、槽平行于水深线延伸5
南海神狐海域槽脊变化规律不明显,分布在峡谷头部或峡谷脊上12
槽线和脊线近平行于水深线且垂直于峡谷轴线、槽脊无变化规律13
槽周缘见铲式正断层、脊上斜坡翼比下斜坡翼厚度大14
南海东沙海域发育内部断层、无迁移特征、两翼等厚、形态上无变化规律、槽无平面上的分叉与合并、槽亚平行于等深线15
Table 1  Distributions and characteristics of studied sediment creep
位置槽脊地层的特征参考文献
西太平洋脊间转折处下宽上窄、反射连续且向陆迁移、脊上斜坡翼比下斜坡翼厚、与古海底的粗糙度有关2
地中海反射连续、无剪切破裂特征、无与蠕动递进变形相关的生长构造、平面上槽出现分叉与合并6
阿尔沃兰海反射连续且向陆迁移、脊幅度向陆增大、槽平行于等深线延伸、岩心分析为粗粒沉积35
亚得里亚海脊上斜坡翼平缓而下斜坡翼陡、槽脊无规律变化、槽脊与底部泥质起伏混杂伴生3
脊上斜坡翼振幅比下斜坡翼振幅强、脊间分隔面的坡度小(4°~5°),不符合剪切破裂准则36
塔兰托海湾槽脊平行于等深线延伸、无迁移特征、槽脊无明显规律变化、无侵蚀特征、海底与下伏地层起伏形态相似37
Table 2  The features of certain ridges and troughs suspected of sediment creep
Fig. 3  The seafloor undulations formed by the combination of creeping and sedimentation modified after reference 37])
The plan view map (a) and section (b) of hybrid genetic undulations
Fig. 4  Comparison of true dip and apparent dip of ridge-trough interface modified after reference 36])
Fig. 5  The diagram of the structure underlying the trough and ridge as well as vertical dislocated fault
(a) The diagram of trough and ridge with underlying fault; (b) The diagram of trough and ridge with underlying landslide step; (c) The diagram of vertical dislocated segment caused by fault
Fig. 6  The numerical modeling diagram of the creeping of gas-bearing strata
(a)A schematic model of the gas-bearing strata;(b)The total displacements at the initial stage of creeping;(c)The shear stresses stage at the initial stage of creeping
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