IPCC. Common Questions about Climate Change. Second Assessment Report[M]. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996.
 Rosenzweig W L. Net primary productivity of terrestrial communities: prediction from climatological data[J]. Ameri Nat, 1968, 102: 67～74.
 Lieth H, Whittaker R H. Modeling the Primary Productivity of the World. Primary Productivity of the Biosphere[M].New York: Springer-Verlag, 1975.237～263.
 Webb W L, The primary productivity and bio-control of forest, grassland and desert ecosystems in the US [J].Natural Resoures Study ( A Special Issue on Foreign Ecological Researches),1985.1～31.
 Chen Z H, Wang B S, Zhang H D. The Productivity of the Lower Subtropical Evergreen Broad-leaved Forest [M].Guangzhou: Guangdong Higher Education Press, 1996.
 Steffen W L. Implication of global change for natural and managed ecosystems: a synthesis of GCTE and related research[J]. Global Change Report, 1997,29:6～7.
 Tang H P, Chen X D, Zhang X S,et al. A preliminary study on the biome classification and the response of biomes to global change along Northeast China Transect (NECT)[J].Acta Phytoecologica Sinica, 1988,22(5):428～433.
 Raich J W, Russell A Z, Vitousek P M. Primary productivity and ecosystem development along an elevational gradient at Mauna Loa, Hawaii[J]. Ecology, 1997, 78:707～721.
 Goetz. Scanning the globe with remote sensing[J]. BioScience, 1998,48(1):39～43.
 Prince S D. Satellite remote sensing of primary production:comparison of results for Sahelian grasslands 1981～1988[J]. Int J Remote Sens, 1991, 12(6):1 301～1 311.
 Ruimy A, Saugier B. Methodology for estimation of terrestrial net primary production from remotely sensed data[J]. J Geophysical Research, 1994, 97:18 515～18 521.
 Hobbs T J. The use of NOAA-AVHRR NDVI data to assess herbage production in the arid rangelands of Central Australia[J]. Int J Remote Sens, 1995, 16: 1 289～1 302.
 Paruelo J M, Epstei H E, Lauenroth W K,et al. ANPP estimates from NDVI for the central grassland region of the United States[J]. Ecology, 1997, 78(3):953～958.
 Lurin B, Rasool S I, Wolfgang Cramer,et al. Global terrestrial net primary productivity[J]. IGBP Newsletter,1994, 19:8～11.
 Olson D, Prince S. Global primary production data initiative update[J]. IGBP Newsletter, 1996, 27:11～13.
 Cramer W, Kicklighter D W, Bondeau A,et al. Comparing Global Models of Terrestrial Net Primary Productivity (NPP): Overview and Key Results[R]. PIK Report, 1997.30.
 Sims P L, Singh J S, Lauenroth W K. The structure and function of ten western North American grasslands III. Net primary production, turnover and efficiencies of energy capture and water use[J]. Journal of Ecology, 1976,66:573～597.
 Lauenroth W K, Sala O E. Long-term forage production of North American short-grass steppe [J]. Ecological Applications, 1992, 2: 397～403.
 Abrams M D, Knapp A K, Hulbert L C. A ten year record of above-ground biomass in a Kansas tall-grass prairie:effects of fire and topographic position [J]. American J Botany, 1986, 73: 1 509～1 515.
 Briggs J M, Seastedt T R, Gibson D J. Comparative analysis of temporal and spatial variability in aboveground production in a deciduous forest and prairie [J]. Holarctic Ecology,1989, 12: 130～136.
 Overpeck J T, Rind D, Goldberg R. Climate-induced changes in forest disturbance and vegetation[J]. Nature, 1990,343(4):51～53.
 Liu S R, Xu D Y,Wand B. Effects of climate change on the productivity of the forests in China II:Modeling the primary productivity of Chinese forest[J]. Forest Research, 1994,7(4):425～430.
 Xu D Y, Guo Q S, Yan H,et al. A Study on the Impacts of Climate Change on Forests in China [M]. Beijing: Chinese Science Press, 1997.
 Zhang Z P, Peng S L, Sun G C,et al. The biomass and primary productivity of the forest ecosystems in Dinghushan[J]. Tropical and Subtropical Ecosystem, 1983,5:63～73.
 Lan T, Xia B, He S A,et al. Tree ring analysis on relation of Pinus massonsiana to climate factors[J]. Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology, 1994,5(4):422～424.
 Fritts H C. Recongstruction Large-scale Climatic Pattern from Tree-ring Data [M]. USA: The University of Arizona Press, 1991.
 Wang M, Bai S J, Tao D L,et al. Effects of rise in air-temperature on tree ring growth of forest on Changbai Mountain[J]. Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology, 1995,6(2):128～132.
 Li J W. The Ecology and Management of Korean-Pine Mixed Forest in NE China [M]. Harbin: Northeast Forestry University Press,1997.
 Lin W H. The reaction of plant photosynthesis to elevated CO2concentration[J]. Acta Ecologica Sinica, 1998,18(5):529～538.
 Breemen N V, Jenkins A, Wright R F,et al. Impacts of elevated carbon dioxide and temperature on a boreal forest ecosystem (CLIMEX Project)[J]. Ecosystem, 1998, 1:345～351.
 Kaiser J. Environment: green grass, cool climate? [J].Science, 1996,1 274(5 293):1 610～1 611.
 Zhang F C. The effects of climate change on the biotemperature of wooden plants in China [J]. Acta Geographica Sinica, 1995, 50(5):402～409.
 Li Q S. Effects of climate change on agroecological systems in the Yangtze Delta[J]. Acta Ecologica Sinica, 1994,14(3):295～299.
 Wright R F. Effects of increased carbon dioxide and temperature of runoff chemistry at a forested catchment in Southern Norway (CLIMEX Project) [J]. Ecosystems,1998, 1:216～225.
 Melillo J M. Warm, Warm on the range[J]. Science, 1999,1283 (5399): 183～184.
 Kang S Z, Cai H J, Liang Y L,et al. On the study of the effects of elevated CO2concentration on the canopy temperature, evapotranspiration and soil water condition of spring wheat[J]. Acta Ecologica Sinica, 1997,17(4):412～417.
 Tang Z C. On the study of drought ecophysiology in plants[J]. Acta Ecologia Sinica, 1983,3(3):196～203.
 Shan L, Xu M. Water-saving agriculture and its physio-ecological bases[J]. Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology,1991,2(1):70～76.
 Sun G C. Recovery of vegetation in subtropical monsoon evergreen broad-leaved forest I. Principle: Response of photosynthesis of plants on different disturbed forestlands to environmental factors[J]. Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology, 1994,5(1): 37～42.
 Xing J H, Chen K, Ma S S. Effects of air temperature and relative humidity on leaf water potential and leaf elongating rate of some plants[J]. Acta Phytoecologica et Geobotanica Sinica, 1989,13(1):49～54.
 Ziska L H, Bunce J A. Direct and indirect inhibition of single leaf respiration by elevated CO2concentrations: Interaction with temperature[J]. Physiol Plant, 1990,90:130～138.
 Ziska L H, Bunce J A. Increasing growth temperature reduces the stimulation effect of elevated CO2on photosynthesis or biomass in two perennial species [J].Physiol Plant, 1994, 91:183～190.
 Prentice C. Process and production[J]. Nature, 1993, 363(20): 383～384.
 Liang N, Maruyama K. Interactive effects of CO2enrichment and drought stress on gas exchange and water-use efficiency in Alnus Firma [ J ]. Environmental and Experimental Botany, 1995, 35(3):353～361.
 Meier, Fuhrer J. Effect of elevated CO2on orchard grass and red clover grown in mixture at two levels of nitrogen or water supply[J]. Environmental and Experimental Botany, 1997,38:251～262.
 Wei C M, Kong G H, Lin Z F. Effect of elevated CO2 concentration on leaf regime of subtropical tree seedlings[J]. Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology, 1997, 8(1): 12～16.
 GCTE. Elevated CO2Network: Current Projects, GCTE Online Reports [EB/OL]. URL: http://www. gcte. org/publications/publications.html,1999.
 Melillo J M, McGuire A D, Kicklighter D W,et al. Global climate change and terrestrial net primary production[J].Nature, 1993, 363 (20): 234～240.
 Churkina G, Running S W. Contrasting climatic controls on the estimated productivity of global terrestrial biomes[J].Ecosystems, 1998,1:206～215.
 Bergh J. Climatic and Nutritional Constraints to Productivity in Norway Spruce. Acta Universitatis Sueciae, Silvestria 37.Ph D Thesis, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences,1997.
 VEMAP Members. Vegetation/ ecosystem modeling and analysis project: Comparing biography and biogeochemistry models in a continental-scale of terrestrial ecosystem responses to climate change and CO2doubling[J]. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 1995, 9: 407～437.
 Steffen W L. Global change and terrestrial ecosystem:integrative activities[J]. Global Change Report, 1995, 95:6～7.
 Zhou G S, Zhang X S, Gao S H,et al. Experiment and modeling on the responses of Chinese terrestrial ecosystems to global change[J]. Acta Botanica Sinica 1997,39(9):879～888.
 Xiao X M, Wang Y F, Chen Z Z,et al. Dynamics of primary productivity and soil organic matter of typical steppe in the Xilin River Basin of Inner Mogolia and their response to climate change[J]. Acta Botanica Sinica, 1996,38:45～52.
 Li D Q, Sun C Y, Zhang X S. Modeling the net primary productivity of the natural potential vegetation in China[J].Acta Botanica Sinica, 1998,40(6):560～566.
 Liu S R, Guo Q S, Wang B,et al. Prediction on the responses of the productivity of Chinese forest to global change[J]. Acta Ecologica Sinica, 1998,18(5):478～483.