Please wait a minute...
img img
Adv. Search
Advances in Earth Science  2011, Vol. 26 Issue (12): 1282-1289    DOI: 10.11867/j.issn.1001-8166.2011.12.1282
Hydrothermal Activity in Middle Okinawa Trough and Preliminary Results of Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 331
Yang Shouye, Wang Quan
State Key Laboratory of Marine Geology, Tongji University, Shanghai200092, China
Download:  PDF (5741KB) 
Export:  BibTeX | EndNote (RIS)      

The Iheya North Hydrothermal Field is located in the middle Okinawa Trough. During the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 331, the Deep Hot Biosphere Project, five sites (C0013~C0017) were drilled in the Iheya North Hydrothermal System from September 1 to October 4, 2010 in order to investigate metabolically diverse subseafloor microbial ecosystems and their physical and chemical settings. Site C0016 located in the active hydrothermal vent site and sulfide-sulfate mound at North Big Chimney (NBC) has the recovery rate of only 4.7%, but the core included the first Kuroko-type, sphalerite-rich black ore ever recovered from the modern seafloor. The other four sites yielded interbedded hemipelagic and volcaniclastic sediment and volcanogenic breccias and pumice that are variably hydrothermally altered and mineralized, in the zeolite to greenschist facies. Detailed temperature profiles at Sites C0014 and C0017 display irregularities suggestive of lateral flow.The analysis of interstitial water and headspace gas yielded complex patterns with depth and laterally at most sites over distances of only a few meters. Documented processes include formation of brines and vapor-rich fluids by phase separation and segregation, uptake of Mg and Na by alteration minerals in exchange for Ca, leaching of K at high temperature and uptake at low temperature, anhydrite precipitation, microbial oxidation of organic matter and anaerobic oxidation of methane utilizing sulfate, microbial methanogenesis. Shipboard analysis has not confirmed the presence of an active deep hot biosphere. Cell abundances are much lower than those found in previous Ocean Drilling Program/ IODP sites on continental margins, and attempts at culturing were generally unsuccessful.

Key words:  IODP      Deep biosphere      Okinawa Trough      Hydrothermal activity     
Received:  10 November 2011      Published:  10 December 2011
E-mail this article
Add to my bookshelf
Add to citation manager
E-mail Alert
Articles by authors

Cite this article: 

Yang Shouye, Wang Quan. Hydrothermal Activity in Middle Okinawa Trough and Preliminary Results of Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 331. Advances in Earth Science, 2011, 26(12): 1282-1289.

URL:     OR

[1]Deming J W,  Baross J A. Deep-sea smokers: Windows to a subsurface biosphere?[J].Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta,1993,57(14): 3 219-3 230.[2]Nakagawa S, Takai K, Inagaki F, et al. Variability in microbial community and venting chemistry in a sediment-hosted back arc hydrothermal system: Impacts of subsea-floor phase-separation[J].FEMS Microbiology Ecology,2005,54(1): 141-155.
[3]Nunoura T,  Takai K. Comparison of microbial communities associated with phase-separation-induced hydrothermal fluids at the Yonaguni Knoll IV hydrothermal field, the Southern Okinawa Trough[J].FEMS Microbiology Ecology, 2009,67: 351-370. 
[4]Takai K, Gamo T, Tsunogai U, et al. Geochemical and microbiological evidence for a hydrogen-based, hyperthermo-philic subsurface lithoautotrophic microbial ecosystem (HyperSLiME) beneath an active deep-sea hydrothermal field[J].Extremophiles,2004,8(4): 269-282.
[5]Takai K, Nunoura T, Ishibashi J, et al. Variability in the microbial communities and hydrothermal fluid chemistry at the newly discovered Mariner hydrothermal field, southern Lau Basin[J].Journal of Geophysical Research,2008,113(G2): G02031.
[6]Takai K, Nunoura T, Horikoshi K, et al. Variability in microbial communities in black smoker chimneys at the NW caldera vent field, Brothers Volcano, Kermadec arc[J].Geomicrobiology Journal,2009,26(8): 552-569. 
[7]Qin Yunshan, Zhai Shikui, Mao Xueying, et al. The trace element characteristics of the pumice in the Okinawa Trough and its geological significance[J]. Oceanologia et Limnologia Sinica, 1987, 18(4): 313-319.[秦蕴珊, 翟世奎, 毛雪英, 等. 冲绳海槽浮岩微量元素特征及其地质意义[J]. 海洋与湖沼, 1987, 18(4): 313-319.]
[8]Zhai Shikui, Gan Xiaoqun. Study of basal from the hydrothermal field of the Okinawa Trough[J].Oceanologia et  Limnologia Sinica, 1995, 26(2): 115-123.[翟世奎, 干晓群. 冲绳海槽热液活动区玄武岩的矿物学和岩石化学特征及其地质意义[J]. 海洋与湖沼, 1995, 26( 2): 115-123.]
[9]Chen Lirong, Zhai Shikui, Shen Shunxi. Isotopic characteristics of pumice and its age dating in the Okinawa Trough[J]. Science in China (Series B), 1993, 23(3): 324-329.[陈丽蓉,翟世奎,申顺喜. 冲绳海槽浮岩的同位素特征及年龄测定[J]. 中国科学: B辑, 1993, 23(3):324-329.]
[10]Li Weiran, Yang Zuosheng, Wang Yongji, et al. The petrochemical features of the volcanic rocks in Okinawa Trough and their geological significance[J]. Acta Petrologica Sinica, 1997, 13(4): 538-550.[李巍然, 杨作升, 王永吉, 等.冲绳海槽火山岩岩石化学特征及其地质意义[J]. 岩石学报, 1997, 13(4): 538-550.]
[11]Hou Zengqian, Zhang Qiling. CO2-Hydrocarbon fluids of the Jade hydrothermal field in the Okinawa Trough: Fluid inclusion evidence[J]. Science in China (Series D), 1998, 28(2): 142-148.[侯增谦, 张绮玲. 冲绳海槽现代活动热水区CO2—烃类流体: 流体包裹体证据[J]. 中国科学:D辑, 1998, 28(2): 142-148.]
[12]Zhai Shikui, Yu Zenghui, Du Tongjun. Elemental geochemical records of modern seafloor hydrothermal activities in sediments from the central Okinawa Trough[J]. Acta Oceanologica Sinica, 2007, 29(1): 58-65.[翟世奎,于增慧,杜同军. 冲绳海槽中部现代海底热液活动在沉积物中的元素地球化学记录[J]. 海洋学报, 2007, 29(1): 58-65.]
[13]Zhai Shikui, Chen Lirong, Zhang Haiqi, et al. Igneous Process and Subseafloor Hydrothermal Activity in the Okinawa Trough[M]. Beijing: Ocean Press, 2001.[翟世奎, 陈丽蓉, 张海启, 等. 冲绳海槽的岩浆作用与海底热液活动[M]. 北京: 海洋出版社, 2001.]
[14]Zeng Zhigang, Jiang Fuqing, Zhai Shikui, et al. Sulfur isotopic composition of seafloor hydrothermal sediment from the Jade hydrothermal field in the central Okinawa Trough and its geological significance[J]. Acta Oceanologica Sinica, 2000, 22(40): 74-82.[曾志刚, 蒋富清, 翟世奎, 等.冲绳海槽中部Jade热液活动区中海底热液沉积物的硫同位素组成及其地质意义[J]. 海洋学报, 2000, 22(40): 74-82.]
[15]Zeng Zhigang, Yu Shaoxiong, Yin Xuebo, et al. Element enrichment and U-series isotopic characteristics of the hydrothermal sulfides at Jade site in the Okinawa Trough[J]. Science in China (Series D), 2009, 39(11): 1 579-1 590.[曾志刚, 余少雄, 殷学博, 等. 冲绳海槽Jade热液区热液硫化物的元素富集与铀系同位素组成[J]. 中国科学: D辑, 2009, 39(11): 1 579-1 590.]
[16]Halbach P, Nakamura K, Wahsner M, et al. Probable modern analogue of Kuroko-type massive sulfide deposits in the Okinawa Trough back-arc basin[J].Nature,1989,338(6 215): 496-499.
[17]Sakai H, Gamo T, Kim E S, et al. Venting of carbon dioxide-rich fluid and hydrate formation in mid-Okinawa Trough backarc basin[J].Science,1990,248(4 959): 1 093-1 096.
[18]Glasby G P,  Notsu K. Submarine hydrothermal mineralization in the Okinawa Trough, SW of Japan: An overview[J].Ore Geology Review,2003,23(3/4): 299-339.
[19]Kawagucci S, Chiba H, Ishibashi J, et al. Hydrothermal fluid geochemistry at the Iheya north field in the mid-Okinawa Trough:Implication for origin of methane in subseafloor fluid circulation systems[J].Geochemical Journal,2011,45(2):109-124.
[20]Takai K, Horikoshi K. Genetic diversity of archaea in deep-sea hydrothermal vent environments[J].Genetics,1999,152:1 285-1 297.
[21]Takai K, Inagaki F, Nakagawa S, et al. Isolation and phylogenetic diversity of members of previously uncultivated ε-Proteobacteria in deep-sea hydrothermal fields[J].FEMS Microbiology Letters,2003,218(1): 167-174.
[22]Takai K, Nakagawa S, Reysenbach A L, et al. Microbial ecology of mid-ocean ridges and backarc basins[C]Christie D M, Fisher C R, Lee S M, et al,eds. Back-Arc Spreading Systems: Geological, Biological, Chemical and Physical Interactions. Geo- physical Monograph,2006,166:185-213. 
[23]Takai K, Nakamura K. Compositional, physiological and metabolic variability in microbial communities associated with geochemically diverse, deep-sea hydrothermal vent fluids[M]Barton L, Mendl M, Loy A, eds. Geomicrobiology: Molecular and Environmental Perspective. New York: Springer,2010:251-283. 
[24]Halbach P, Pracejus B,  Maerten A.  Geology and mineralogy of massive sulfide ores from the central Okinawa Trough, Japan[J].Society of  Economic Geologists,1993,88(8): 2 210-2 225.
[25]Sakai H, Gamo T, Kim E S, et al.Unique chemistry of the hydrothermal solution in the mid-Okinawa Trough backarc basin[J].Geophysical Research Letters,1990,17(12): 2 133-2 136.
[26]Gamo T, Ishibashi J, Tsunogai U,et al. Unique geochemistry of submarine hydrothermal fluids from arc-back-arc settings of the Western Pacific[C]Christie D M, Fisher C R, Lee S M, et al,eds. Back-arc Spreading Systems: Geological, Biological, Chemical, and Physical interactions. Geophysical Monograph,2006,166:147-161. 
[27]Konno U, Tsunogai U, Nakagawa F, et al.Liquid CO2 venting on the seafloor: Yonaguni Knoll IV hydrothermal system, Okinawa Trough[J].Geophysical Research Letters,2006,33(16): L16607.
[28]Suzuki R, Ishibashi J, Nakaseama M,et al.  Diverse range of mineralization induced by phase separation of hydrothermal fluid: Case study of the Yonaguni Knoll IV hydrothermal field in the Okinawa Trough back-arc basin[J].Resource Geology,2008,58(3): 267-288. 
[29]Expedition 331 Scientists. Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 331 Preliminary Report Deep Hot Biosphere[M].US:Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Management Interational, Inc.2011:1-63.
[30]Schrum H N, Spivack A J, Kastner M, et al.Sulfate-reducing ammonium oxidation: A thermodynamically feasible metabolic pathway in subseafloor sediment[J].Geology,2009,37(10): 939-942.

No Suggested Reading articles found!