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Advances in Earth Science  2021, Vol. 36 Issue (7): 694-711    DOI: 10.11867/j.issn.1001-8166.2021.055
Research Progress of InSAR Technology in Permafrost
Shichao JIA1(),Tingjun ZHANG1(),Chengyan FAN1,Lin LIU2,Wanwan SHAO1
1.Key Laboratory of Western China's Environmental Systems (Ministry of Education),College of Earth and Environmental Sciences,Lanzhou University,Lanzhou 730000,China
2.Earth System Science Programme,Faculty of Science,The Chinese University of Hong Kong,Hong Kong 999077,China
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Permafrost is gradually degraded with climate warming, which seriously affects the stability of engineering construction in permafrost regions. Therefore, real-time and accurate monitoring of permafrost changes is urgent. Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (InSAR), as a new type of earth observation technology, can monitor the surface of permafrost regions on a large scale at all times and in all weather, and become an effective monitoring method. This paper aims to introduce the research progress and future development trends of InSAR technology in permafrost regions in the past two decades. Firstly, the basic principle of InSAR technology and SAR system are introduced. Then, based on the development of InSAR technology, the application of D-InSAR and multi-temporal InSAR in permafrost regions is outlined. It also summarizes the currently developed freeze-thaw models and analyzes the influencing factors of surface deformation in permafrost regions. Finally, look forward to the future development trend and main problems of InSAR technology in permafrost monitoring, in order to provide scientific research personnel with a systematic application introduction.

Key words:  Permafrost      InSAR      Ground surface deformation      Freeze-thaw model     
Received:  20 February 2021      Published:  20 August 2021
ZTFLH:  P642.14  
Fund: the Chinese Academy of Sciences Class A Leading Science and Technology Project "Permafrost changes and hydrological ecological effects in Qilian Mountains"(XDA20100103);"Third Pole and Pan-Third Pole and its linkage with the North and South Pole"(XDA20100313)
Corresponding Authors:  Tingjun ZHANG     E-mail:;
About author:  JIA Shichao (1993-), male, Maanshan City, Anhui Province, Ph. D student. Research areas include InSAR technology to monitor permafrost changes. E-mail:
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Shichao JIA
Tingjun ZHANG
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Wanwan SHAO

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Shichao JIA,Tingjun ZHANG,Chengyan FAN,Lin LIU,Wanwan SHAO. Research Progress of InSAR Technology in Permafrost. Advances in Earth Science, 2021, 36(7): 694-711.

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Fig. 1  Schematic diagram of InSAR technology36
Fig. 2  Civil SAR systems commonly used in InSAR technology
SEASAT1978.06~1017100L25 m×25 mHH20°~26°
SIR-A1981.11—1981.1150L40 m×40 mHH47°
SIR-B1983.10—1984.1050L40 m×40 mHH15°~64°
ERS-11991.07—2000.0335、3、168100C30 m×30 mVV20°~26°
JERS-11992.02—1998.104475L18 m×18 mHH35°
ERS-21995.04—2011.0935、3100C30 m×30 mVV20°~26°
Radarsat-11995.11—2013.0324精细模式:50C9 m×8.9 mHH37°~47°
标准模式:10028 m×(21~27) m20°~49°
扫描模式:50028 m×(23,27,35) m20°~45°
Envisat2002.03—2012.0435、30极化模式:58~100C30 m×(30~150) mVV+HH、HH+HV、VV+VH15°~45°
图像模式:58~10030 m×(30~150) mVV、HH15°~45°
波模式:510 m×10 m15°~45°
带宽模式:405150 m×150 m17°~42°
ALOS-12006.01—2011.0546单极化/双极化模式:70L10 m×(7,14) mHH、VV、HH+HV、VV+VH8°~60°
全极化模式:3010 m×24 mHH+HV+VV+VH8°~30°
TerraSAR-X2007.06至今11高分辨率聚束模式:10X1 m×(1.5~3.5) mHH、VV、HH+VV20°~55°
聚束模式:102 m×(1.5~3.5) mHH、VV、HH+VV20°~55°
条带模式:303 m×(3~6) mHH、VV、HH+VV、HH+HV、VV+VH、HH+HV+VV+VH20°~45°
扫描模式:10026 m×16 mHH、VV20°~45°
COSMO-SkyMed2007.06至今24聚束模式:10X1 m×1 mHH、VV25°~50°
条带模式:30~403~15 mHH、HV、VV、VH、HH+VV、HH+HV、VV+VH25°~50°
扫描模式:100~20030~100 mHH、HV、VV、VH25°~50°
Radarsat-22007.12至今24聚束模式:20C0.8 m×(2.1~3.3) mHH、HV、VV、VH20°~49°
条带模式:20~150(3.0~25.6) m×(2.5~42.8) mHH,HH+HV+VV+VH20°~60°
扫描模式:300~500(46~113) m×(43~183) mHH、HV、VV、VH、HH+VV、VV+VH20°~49°
Sentinel-1A2014.04至今12条带模式:80C5 m×5 mHH、VV、HH+HV、VV+VH20°~45°
干涉宽带模式:2505 m×20 mHH、VV、HH+HV、VV+VH29°~46°
超幅宽模式:40020 m×40 mHH、VV、HH+HV、VV+VH19°~47°
波模式:205 m×5 mHH、VV



ALOS-22014.05至今14聚束模式:25L1 m×3 mHH、HV、VV、VH8°~70°
条带模式:50/703 m、6 m、10 mHH、HV、VV、VH、HH+VV、VV+VH
扫描模式:350/490100 m、60 mHH、HV、VV、VH、HH+VV、VV+VH
Sentinel-1B2016.04至今12条带模式:80C5 m×5 mHH、VV、HH+HV、VV+VH20°~45°
干涉宽带模式:2505 m×20 mHH、VV、HH+HV、VV+VH29°~46°
超幅宽模式:40020 m×40 mHH、VV、HH+HV、VV+VH19°~47°
波模式:205 m×5 mHH、VV



GF-32016.08至今2012种模式:10~650C1~500 m



Table 1  Design parameters of major civil satellite SAR systems
ERS-1(C)阿拉斯加布鲁克斯山脉地区检测到Imnavait分水岭和Toolik湖及其周围发生3 cm的抬升49
ERS-1/2(C)青藏高原青藏公路沿线垂直沉降量最大约10.1 mm50
Radarsat-1(C)加拿大西北部Thunder河雷达视线方向最大滑塌形变为20 mm51
ALOS PALSAR(L)青藏高原研究区最大沉降量达到15 cm,最大抬升量为8 cm52
ALOS PALSAR(L)青藏高原北麓河地区青藏铁路、青藏公路和输电塔上的沉降量为3~7 mm53
ALOS PALSAR(L)青藏高原研究区最大抬升量为16 cm,最大沉降量为28 cm54
Radarsat-2(C)加拿大巴芬岛Iqaluit机场2012年5月23日至9月20日的垂直形变量为1~12.5 cm55
ALOS PALSAR(L)东北多年冻土区研究区2010年累计形变量为4~16 cm56
TerraSAR-X(X)青藏高原北麓河地区沉降量为0~11.3 cm,抬升量为0~11.4 cm57
TerraSAR-X(X)东北多年冻土区长春至双辽高速公路段2017年的3月2~24日路基沿线形变为-1.29~3.66 mm;3月24日至4月26日为-0.74~-10.15 mm;4月26日至5月29日为-1.24~-8.56 mm29
Table 2  Application of D-InSAR technology in permafrost deformation monitoring
Fig. 3  Combination characteristics of PS technology and SBAS technology SAR image62
Fig. 4  Schematic diagram of the state of the active layer during the melting season
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