Please wait a minute...
img img
Adv. Search
Advances in Earth Science  2019, Vol. 34 Issue (11): 1141-1151    DOI: 10.11867/j.issn.1001-8166.2019.11.1141
    
Characteristics and Drivers of Methane Fluxes from a Rice Paddy Based on the Flux Measurement
Chaoqing Song1,2(),Wei Liu3,Haibo Lu4,5,Wenping Yuan4,5()
1. State Key Laboratory of Cryospheric Sciences, Northwest Institute of Eco-Environment and Resources, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000, China
2. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
3. State Key Laboratory of Vegetation and Environmental Change, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100093, China
4. Guangdong Province Key Laboratory for Change and Natural Disaster Studies, School of Atmospheric Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangdong Zhuhai 519082, China
5. Southern Marine Science and Engineering Guangdong Laboratory, Guangdong Zhuhai 519082, China
Download:  HTML  PDF (3224KB) 
Export:  BibTeX | EndNote (RIS)      
Abstract  

Rice paddies are an important anthropogenic source of methane (CH4) to the atmosphere, which aggravate the global warming greatly. CH4 fluxes from a rice paddy in Central China were continuously measured with the eddy covariance method in 2018. The characteristics, dynamics and drivers of the observed CH4 fluxes from this paddy field were subsequently analyzed. The results indicated that a distinct seasonal variation of daily CH4 fluxes was found over the whole observed period. Daily CH4 fluxes were the highest in the vegetative period, then decreased gradually, and became the lowest in the fallow period; observed CH4 fluxes had a clear single-peak diurnal pattern during the vegetative and reproductive periods, and reached daily peaks at about 14:00-16:00. However, no obvious diurnal variation in CH4 fluxes was observed during the fallow period; air temperature was the most important drivers that controlled the seasonal variation of CH4 fluxes from this paddy field, and Vapor Pressure Deficit (VPD) was also found related to the CH4 emissions; the largest daily CH4 flux was 0.69 μmol/(m2·s), occurred in the late of vegetative period, and the total amount of CH4 emissions over the whole observed period was about 28 g C/m2.

Key words:  Eddy covariance      Rice paddy      Methane fluxes.     
Received:  09 September 2019      Published:  31 December 2019
ZTFLH:  P412.1  
Fund: the National Natural Science Foundation of China “Research on the impact of climate and land use change on land-river of carbon flux”(31870459)
Corresponding Authors:  Wenping Yuan     E-mail:  songchaoqing@lzb.ac.cn;yuanwp3@mail.sysu.edu.cn
About author:  Song Chaoqing (1995-), Yichang City, Hubei Province, Master student. Research areas include methane emission from rice field. E-mail: songchaoqing@lzb.ac.cn
Service
E-mail this article
Add to my bookshelf
Add to citation manager
E-mail Alert
RSS
Articles by authors
Chaoqing Song
Wei Liu
Haibo Lu
Wenping Yuan

Cite this article: 

Chaoqing Song,Wei Liu,Haibo Lu,Wenping Yuan. Characteristics and Drivers of Methane Fluxes from a Rice Paddy Based on the Flux Measurement. Advances in Earth Science, 2019, 34(11): 1141-1151.

URL: 

http://www.adearth.ac.cn/EN/10.11867/j.issn.1001-8166.2019.11.1141     OR     http://www.adearth.ac.cn/EN/Y2019/V34/I11/1141

Fig.1  Overview of the study area
(a)Location of the study area; (b)Distribution of winds speeds and directions over the whole observed period (0 is the north direction)
Fig.2  Diurnal variations of environmental conditions and carbon fluxes
(a) Air temperature (Tair); (b) Photosynthetic Photon Flux Density (PPFD); (c) Vapor Pressure Deficit (VPD); (d) CO2 fluxes; (e) Gross Ecosystem Production (GEP). The black error bars represent the standard deviations of corresponding variables
Fig.3  Diurnal variation of CH4 fluxes during different periods
The black error bars represent the standard deviations of CH4 fluxes
Fig.4  Seasonal variations of environmental conditions and carbon fluxes
(a) Air temperature (Tair) and rainfall; (b) Photosynthetic Photon Flux Density (PPFD); (c) Vapor Pressure Deficit (VPD); (d) CO2 fluxes; (e) Gross Ecosystem Production (GEP)
时间段空气温度/℃PPFD/[μmol/(m2·s)]VPD/kPaCO2通量/[μmol/(m2·s)]GEP/[μmol/(m2·s)]CH4通量/[μmol/(m2·s)]
最大值最小值平均值最大值最小值平均值最大值最小值平均值最大值最小值平均值最大值最小值平均值最大值最小值平均值
营养生长阶段32.7127.0930.95565.10199.21431.641.730.721.18-0.89-8.12-3.9931.4411.6721.640.690.410.53
生殖生长阶段31.7122.1927.28522.5453.99318.421.220.350.843.55-10.60-2.7036.9711.3223.040.500.150.29
成熟阶段24.0816.3219.51400.3027.84203.601.070.190.623.26-2.96-0.3919.795.0614.45
休耕阶段18.759.8415.62312.0025.10151.941.150.180.525.201.423.035.660.001.510.030.010.02
Table 1  The statistics of air temperature (Tair), PPFD, VPD, CO2 fluxes, GEP, and CH4 fluxes during different periods
Fig.5  Seasonal variation of CH4 fluxes
Fig.6  The relationships between daily CH4 fluxes and (a) air temperature (Tair), (b) Photosynthetic Photon Flux Density (PPFD), (c) Vapor Pressure Deficit (VPD), and (d) Gross Ecosystem Production (GEP) during the whole observed period
Fig.7  The modeled CH4 fluxes based on the nonlinear regression model
(a) Comparison between the modeled and observed CH4 fluxes (black cross dots); (b) The modeled CH4 fluxes during the whole observed period
农田类型位置观测时段CH4排放/(g C/m2)参考文献
水稻田菲律宾2012年12月至2013年5月3.26[6]
水稻田美国2009—2015年46.10[7]
水稻田中国2016年6~11月19.20[12]
稻麦轮作中国2016年58.08[11]
水稻田中国2018年7~11月28.00本文
Table 2  Review of CH4 emission budget from rice paddies measured with eddy covariance method
1 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis: Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [M]. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2013.
2 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis: Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [M]. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007.
3 Neue H U. Methane emission from rice fields [J]. Bioscience, 1993, 43(7): 466-474.
4 Wang J, Zhang X, Xiong Z, et al. Methane emissions from a rice agroecosystem in South China: Effects of water regime, straw incorporation and nitrogen fertilizer [J]. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems, 2012, 93(1): 103-112.
5 Weller S, Kraus D, Ayag K, et al. Methane and nitrous oxide emissions from rice and maize production in diversified rice cropping systems[J]. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems, 2015, 101(1): 37-53.
6 Alberto M C R, Wassmann R, Buresh R J, et al. Measuring methane flux from irrigated rice fields by eddy covariance method using open-path gas analyzer[J]. Field Crops Research, 2014, 160: 12-21.
7 Knox S H, Matthes J H, Sturtevant C, et al. Biophysical controls on interannual variability in ecosystem-scale CO2 and CH4 exchange in a California rice paddy [J]. Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences, 2016, 121(3): 978-1 001.
8 Meijide A, Manca G, Goded I, et al. Seasonal trends and environmental controls of methane emissions in a rice paddy field in Northern Italy [J]. Biogeosciences, 2011, 8(12): 3 809-3 821.
9 Iwata H, Mano M, Ono K, et al. Exploring sub-daily to seasonal variations in methane exchange in a single-crop rice paddy in central Japan [J]. Atmospheric Environment, 2018, 179: 156-165.
10 Yuan J, Yuan Y, Zhu Y, et al. Effects of different fertilizers on methane emissions and methanogenic community structures in paddy rhizosphere soil [J]. Science of the Total Environment, 2018, 627: 770-781.
11 Dai S, Ju W, Zhang Y, et al. Variations and drivers of methane fluxes from a rice-wheat rotation agroecosystem in eastern China at seasonal and diurnal scales [J]. Science of the Total Environment, 2019, 690(10): 973-990.
12 Ge H, Zhang H, Zhang H, et al. The characteristics of methane flux from an irrigated rice farm in East China measured using the eddy covariance method [J]. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 2018, 249: 228-238.
13 Li H, Guo H, Helbig M, et al. Does direct-seeded rice decrease ecosystem-scale methane emissions?—A case study from a rice paddy in southeast China [J]. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 2019, 272/273: 118-127.
14 Baldocchi D. Assessing the eddy covariance technique for evaluating carbon dioxide exchange rates of ecosystems: Past, present and future [J]. Global Change Biology, 2003, 9(4): 479-492.
15 Reichstein M, Falge E, Baldocchi D, et al. On the separation of net ecosystem exchange into assimilation and ecosystem respiration: Review and improved algorithm [J]. Global Change Biology, 2005, 11(9): 1 424-1 439.
16 Lloyd J, Taylor J. On the temperature dependence of soil respiration [J]. Functional Ecology, 1994, 8(3): 315-323.
17 Falge E, Baldocchi D, Olson R, et al. Gap filling strategies for defensible annual sums of net ecosystem exchange [J]. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 2001, 107(1): 43-69.
18 Song W, Wang H, Wang G, et al. Methane emissions from an alpine wetland on the Tibetan Plateau: Neglected but vital contribution of the nongrowing season [J]. Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences, 2015, 120(8): 1 475-1 490.
19 Long K D, Flanagan L B, Cai T. Diurnal and seasonal variation in methane emissions in a northern Canadian peatland measured by eddy covariance [J]. Global Change Biology, 2010, 16(9): 2 420-2 435.
20 Shen Renxing, Shangguan Xingjian, Wang Mingxing, et al. Methane emission from rice fields in Guangzhou region and the spatial variation of methane emission in China [J]. Advances in Earth Science, 1995, 10(4): 387-392.
20 沈壬兴,上官行健,王明星,等.广州地区稻田甲烷排放及中国稻田甲烷排放的空间变化[J].地球科学进展,1995,10(4):387-392.
21 Jia Q, Yu W, Zhou L, et al. Methane emissions from typical paddy fields in Liaohe Plain and Sanjiang Plain, Northeast China[J]. Environmental Research Communications, 2019, 1(1):011006.
22 Schütz H, Seiler W, Conrad R. Influence of soil temperature on methane emission from rice paddy fields [J]. Biogeochemistry, 1990, 11(2): 77-95.
23 Conrad R. Control of microbial methane production in wetland rice fields [J]. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems, 2002, 64(1/2): 59-69.
24 Huang Y, Sass R, Fisher F. Methane emission from Texas rice paddy soils. 2. Seasonal contribution of rice biomass production to CH4 emission [J]. Global Change Biology, 1997, 3(6): 491-500.
25 Sass R L, Andrews J A, Ding A J, et al. Spatial and temporal variability in methane emissions from rice paddies: Implications for assessing regional methane budgets [J]. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems, 2002, 64(1/2): 3-7.
26 Shangguan Xingjian, Wang Mingxing, Chen Dezhang, et al. Methane production in rice paddy fields [J]. Advances in Earth Science, 1993, 8(5): 1-12.
26 上官行健,王明星,陈德章,等.稻田土壤中的CH4生成[J].地球科学进展,1993,8(5):1-12.
No Suggested Reading articles found!