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Advances in Earth Science  2018, Vol. 33 Issue (6): 623-640    DOI: 10.11867/j.issn.1001-8166.2018.06.0623
    
The Development Process and Restriction Mechanism of Reefs (Aeronian,Early Silurian) in the Paleo-Ocean of Upper Yangtze Region—The Shiniulan Formation of Southern Chongqing and Northern Guizhou Province As An Example
Ping Wang1(), Xianfeng Tan1,2,*(), Hao Chen3, Jia Wang1, Mai Liang1, Long Luo4, Tian Ran1
1.Chongqing Key Laboratory of Complex Oil and Gas Field Exploration and Development, Chongqing University of Science and Technology, Chongqing 401331, China
2.The Key Laboratotry of Unconventional Petroleum Geology, China Geological Survey, Beijing 100029, China
3.No.208 Hydrogeology and Engineering Geology Team of Chongqing Bureau of Geology and Minerals Exploration, Chongqing 400700, China
4.China University of Petroleum (Beijing) College of Geosciences, Beijing 102249, China
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Abstract  

After the Ordovician Ice Age, the Paleo-Ocean of the Upper Yangtze Region had experienced temperature recovery in the Early Silurian and a large number of organisms multiplied. The scale of reefs was small patch reefs. A certain amount of coral-stromatoporoid reefs developed in the Shiniulan Formation (Late Aeronian, Early Silurian) in the Upper Yangtze Platform. Based on a lot of field geological observations and comprehensive use by means of thin section identification, carbon and oxygen isotopes and elemental analysis, we systematically studied the development process of reefs (Early Silurian) in the Paleo-Ocean of Upper Yangtze Region. The results showed that the coral-stromatoporoid reefs mainly developed in the middle-upper part of the stratum of the Shiniulan Formation. The reef-forming organisms were mainly coral and stromatoporoid, and reef-inserted organisms were bryozoans, brachiopods, cephalopods, algae, crinoids and bivalves. The Shiniulan Formation reef developed on the ramp of the carbonate Platform, which corresponded to the four growth stages of reefs: stabilization, colonization, diversification and domination. From the bottom to top, the Shiniulan Formation, the argillaceous and sandy content decreased, while the lime composition and biological remnants increased in quantity. Under the influence of Caledonian tectonic movement in the Early Silurian, the growth of reefs in the Shiniulan Formation of the Yangtze Platform was frequently affected by external source agitation, sea level fluctuation, seawater temperature and salinity. These factors restricted the growth characteristics, evolution, scale and size of reefs in the Shiniulan Formation. By comparing the synchronous global reef developmental state, we found that reefs were globally distributed in Aeronian, chiefly centering on the margin of carbonate platform at warm (20~28 ℃) and tropical latitudes 25~30° north and south. The reefs in the corresponding periods were dispersed in Laurentia, Siberia and Kazakhstan Block. However, there are great differences in the developmental characteristics, evolution and extension scale comparing with the reefs (Early Silurian) in the Paleo-Ocean of Upper Yangtze Region.

Key words:  Reef      The Shiniulan Formation      Aeronian      Early Silurian      Paleo-Ocean of Upper Yangtze Region.     
Received:  22 January 2018      Published:  23 July 2018
ZTFLH:  P736.2  
Fund: Project supported by the Opening Fund of Key Laboratory of Unconventional Oil and Gas Geology, China Geological Survey “Development characteristics and its relation to the enrichment of shale gas exploration formation of Lower Paleozoic bentonites in middle and upper Yangtze Region”(No.DD20160181-YQ17W06JJ02);The Postgraduate Science and Technology Innovation Project of Chongqing University of Science and Technology “Early Silurian reef development process and its petroleum geological significance in the upper Yangtze area”(No.YKJCX1620136).
Corresponding Authors:  Xianfeng Tan     E-mail:  1056118274@qq.com;xianfengtan8299@163.com
About author: 

First author:Wang Ping(1993-), female,Zhaotong County, Yunnan Province, Master student. Research areas include paleoceanographic environment. E-mail:1056118274@qq.com

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Ping Wang
Xianfeng Tan
Hao Chen
Jia Wang
Mai Liang
Long Luo
Tian Ran

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Ping Wang, Xianfeng Tan, Hao Chen, Jia Wang, Mai Liang, Long Luo, Tian Ran. The Development Process and Restriction Mechanism of Reefs (Aeronian,Early Silurian) in the Paleo-Ocean of Upper Yangtze Region—The Shiniulan Formation of Southern Chongqing and Northern Guizhou Province As An Example. Advances in Earth Science, 2018, 33(6): 623-640.

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http://www.adearth.ac.cn/EN/10.11867/j.issn.1001-8166.2018.06.0623     OR     http://www.adearth.ac.cn/EN/Y2018/V33/I6/623

Fig.1  Regional geological background and stratigraphic distribution
(a) Chronostratigraphic table of the Silurian; (b) Paleogeographic pattern of the Late Aeronian (Early Silurian) in the Paleo-Ocean of Upper Yangtze Region[17,24]; (c) The Shiniulan Formation lithology (the Jiqiangtai section of Wansheng, Chongqing)
Fig.2  Coenocorrelation of the Shiniulan Formation in the Upper Yangtze Region
Fig.3a~h; ②Fig.4a~f;③ Fig.7a,b; ④Fig.7c; ⑤Fig. 7d
Fig.3  Biohermal limestone characteristics of the Shiniulan Formation in the Upper Yangtze Region
(a) Coral frame is suborbicular convex and can be visually discriminated from the surrounding rock in the Jiqiangtai section,106 m; (b) Corals coexist in biohermal limestone in the Jiqiangtai section, 98 m.(c),(d) The individual of Palaeofavosites shiniulanensis is arranged in a diffuse arrangement. The individual transverse section is polygonal, the large 6~8 sides in shaped, and the small individuals are arranged around the large individuals. The tabula are completely horizontal and a few are tilted. (e) Skeleton of Labechia sp. is massive and consists of gentle wavy lamina and short backbones. The local cystose pillars are mainly bent down from a thin layer and not reach the bottom layer. (f) A large number of biodetritus such as stromatoporoids, tabulate corals, algae and bryozoans in biohermal limestone of the Jiqiangtai section, 100 m; (g) Patch reefs. It contains a lot of corals, stromatoporoids and algae in the Jiqiangtai section, 105 m. (h) the layered reefs extend laterally by 27 m and 5 m in thickness of the upper part in the Shiniulan Formation of the Jiqiangtai section
Fig.4  Microscopic photographs of reefs in the Upper Yangtze Region
(a) Rugose coral (Streptelasma) distribute in the biological limestone is suborbicular by full of calcite, and the septum is clear, in the third stratum ofbthe Shiniulan Formation of the Jiqiangtai section; (b) Favosites complex in the third stratum of the Shiniulan Formation of Jiqiangtai section as reef-building organisms present irregular hexagonal structure vertically; (c),(d) Stromatoporoids forming scattered-tabular, domal-tabular, tractile, and bedded structures in biohermal limestone in the fourth stratum of the Shiniulan Formation of Jiqiangtai section; (e) Calcareous alga in biohermal limestone is surrounded by pyrite in the fourth stratum of the Shiniulan Formation of Jiqiangtai section; (f) Fragments of bivalves is surrounded by calcite (limestone) in the third stratum of the Shiniulan Formation of Jiqiangtai section
Fig.5  The developmental pattern of reef (Early Silurian) in Paleo-Ocean of Upper Yangtze Region
(a) Lithologic column in the Yangjiu section of Xishui County, Guizhou; (b) Development pattern of reef in the Shiniulan Formation
Fig.6  Sea level changes and developmental stage of reef (Early Silurian) in Paleo-Ocean of Upper Yangtze Region
(a) Representative lithology profile in the Yangjiu section of Xishui County, Guizhou; (b) Development pattern of reef and related lithofacies in the Shiniulan Formation; (c) The relative change of reef growth corresponding to sea level
序号 原送
样号
δ13C PDB /‰ δ18O PDB/‰ δ18O
校正值
Z/‰ T/℃ 序号 原送
样号
δ13C PDB /‰ δ18O PDB /‰ δ18O校正值 Z/‰ T/℃
1 QL-1 1.47 -9.81 -1.46 125.43 23.65 27 QL-28 2.57 -9.61 -1.26 127.78 22.73
2 QL-2 1.71 -9.85 -1.5 125.90 23.83 28 QL-29 2.38 -9.28 -0.93 127.55 21.22
3 QL-3 1.90 -9.49 -1.14 126.47 22.18 29 QL-30 2.35 -9.46 -1.11 127.40 22.04
4 QL-4 1.57 -9.52 -1.17 125.77 22.32 30 QL-31 1.90 -9.86 -1.51 126.28 23.88
5 QL-5 1.50 -9.62 -1.27 125.58 22.77 31 QL-32 2.29 -9.46 -1.11 127.28 22.04
6 QL-6 1.69 -9.52 -1.17 126.02 22.32 32 QL-33 2.3 -9.48 -1.13 127.29 22.13
7 QL-7 1.98 -9.61 -1.26 126.57 22.73 33 QL-34 2.35 -9.26 -0.91 127.50 21.13
8 QL-8 1.93 -9.65 -1.30 126.45 22.91 34 QL-35 2.32 -9.34 -0.99 127.40 21.49
9 QL-9 1.88 -9.70 -1.35 126.32 23.14 35 QL-36 2.2 -9.25 -0.9 127.20 21.08
10 QL-10 2.15 -9.38 -1.03 127.03 21.68 36 QL-37 2.16 -9.16 -0.81 127.16 20.67
11 QL-11 2.19 -9.47 -1.12 127.07 22.09 37 QL-38 2.13 -9.03 -0.68 127.17 20.08
12 QL-12 1.97 -9.69 -1.34 126.51 23.09 38 QL-39 2.14 -9.01 -0.66 127.20 19.99
13 QL-13 2.25 -9.47 -1.12 127.19 22.09 39 QL-40 1.68 -9.43 -1.08 126.04 21.90
14 QL-14 2.19 -9.64 -1.29 126.98 22.87 40 QL-41 1.90 -8.70 -0.35 126.86 18.58
15 QL-15 1.45 -9.35 -1.00 125.61 21.54 41 QL-42 1.83 -8.94 -0.59 126.60 19.67
16 QL-16 1.91 -9.71 -1.36 126.38 23.19 42 QL-43 1.23 -8.97 -0.62 125.35 19.81
17 QL-17 1.80 -9.46 -1.11 126.28 22.04 43 QL-44 0.52 -9.21 -0.86 123.78 20.90
18 QL-18 1.67 -9.43 -1.08 126.02 21.90 44 QL-45 0.69 -9.41 -1.06 124.03 21.81
19 QL-19 1.70 -9.56 -1.21 126.02 22.50 45 QL-46 0.85 -9.42 -1.07 124.35 21.86
20 QL-21 -0.31 -9.27 -0.92 122.05 21.17 46 QL-47 1.12 -10.14 -1.79 124.54 25.16
21 QL-22 1.87 -9.53 -1.18 126.38 22.36 47 QL-48 1.01 -9.96 -1.61 124.41 24.34
22 QL-23 2.29 -9.61 -1.26 127.20 22.73 48 QL-49 1.29 -9.48 -1.13 125.22 22.13
23 QL-24 2.25 -9.39 -1.04 127.23 21.72 49 QL-50 2.81 -11.09 -2.74 127.53 29.58
24 QL-25 2.26 -9.31 -0.96 127.29 21.36 50 QL-51 2.15 -10.63 -2.28 126.41 27.43
25 QL-26 2.12 -9.82 -1.47 126.75 23.69 51 QL-52 1.63 -10.99 -2.64 125.17 29.11
26 QL-27 2.63 -9.62 -1.27 127.90 22.77
Table 1  Analyzing of carbon and oxygen isotope in Qilong Section
Fig.7  The sedimentary rock under the influence of external sources agitation
(a)The biohermal of the Jiqiangtai section contains a large number of quartz particles (Q), 129.6 m; (b) A large number of quartz particles scattered in the organic framework of the Jiqiangtai section, 102 m; (c) Grainstone contains a large number of quartz particles (Q) and calcite particles (C) in the Jiqiangtai section, 88 m; (d) The pelitic stripe occur frequently in the Jiqiangtai section, 138 m
Fig.8  Comparison of the Menier Formation and the Shiniulan Formation in the Upper Yangtze Region[4]
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