Viruses are by far the most abundant entities in marine environments, and are mainly phages that infect bacteria and archaea, which also are a significant component of marine ecosystem and a major force behind marine biogeochemical cycles. As a major source of mortality, viral lysis can release highly labile cellular components, both organic matters and inorganic nutrients, regulating the metabolism of its hosts and influencing the biogeochemical cycles. During infection, viruses could hijack the metabolic system of hosts for its own propagation, thereby changing the metabolism and metabolites of host cells. This paper summarized the effects of viruses on the metabolism of marine bacterioplankton at both the cellular and community level, and its influence on the cycling of ocean elements. Then, the potential impact of environmental factors was assessed on the influence of viruses upon bacterial metabolism. This paper will contribute to a comprehensive understanding of the role of microbes within marine biogeochemical cycles.