The primary mineral compositions of BIF are regarded as ferric oxyhydroxide or iron silicate nanoparticles (mainly greenalite and stilpnomelane ) whichcan transform into minerals like hematite, magnetite and siderite. On the basis of predominant iron minerals, three distinctive sedimentary facies are recognized in BIF: oxide facies, silicate facies and carbonate facies. Marked by the Great Oxidation Event (GOE, 2.4~2.2 Ga), sedimentary facies can be divided into two models: “anoxic and reducing” model and “stratified ocean” model. The ancient ocean was anoxic and reducing before GOE, and under this circumstance, BIF was distributed from the distal to proximal zones transforming from hematite facies through magnetite facies to carbonate facies, such as West Rand Group BIF (2.96~2.78 Ga) and Kuruman BIF (~2.46 Ga) in south Africa. However, the ancient ocean was a stratified ocean during and after GOE, which means that shallow seawater was oxidizing while deeper seawater was reducing, leading to an opposite sedimentary facies distribution compared to the former one: BIF was distributed from the distal to proximal zones transforming from carbonate facies through magnetite facies to hematite facies, such as Yuanjiacun BIF in China (~2.3 Ga) and Sokoman iron formation in Canada (~1.88 Ga). Overall, BIF is an unrepeatable formation in geological history, which can only form in specific sedimentary environment. The key point to speculate the paleo-ocean environment, namely the problems to be solved at the moment, is to identify and derive the primary mineral compositions, to make sure the genetic mechanism of sedimentary facies especially silicate facies, to restrict the sedimentary conditions and to study microbial activities contacting with BIF.