The specific geographic location and natural conditions of the Arctic region play a significant role in the global climate change. As a result of perennial low temperature, simple ecological structure, and fragile ecosystem and weak stability in the Arctic, Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) accumulating from the region of middle and low latitudes may cause tremendous pressure in the arctic ecological environment. Therefore, the research of POPs in the Arctic region is not only conducive to more in-depth understanding of POPs distribution and transformation process in the global range, but to reasonably assess the harm of human activities on the arctic ecological environment. Thus, in the past 40 years, especially after nine new kinds of emerging organic contaminants being added to the list of Stockholm Convention in 2009, more and more scientific community and general public have pay attention to the research of POPs in the Arctic region. At present, the understanding of legacy POPs in the Arctic is limited, and the research of emerging POPs is in the initial stage. This paper aimed to summarize some conclusions and implications of the research, and focused on the occurrence level, historical evolution, bioaccumulation and source of POPs in atmosphere, waters, sediments and organisms in the Arctic region. Finally, the future changes and key scientific problems of POPs in the Arctic region were proposed.