Advances in Earth Science ›› 2016, Vol. 31 ›› Issue (7): 718-736. doi: 10.11867/j.issn.1001-8166.2016.07.0718.

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The Exploration Status and Research Advances of Deep and Ultra-Deep Clastic Reservoirs

Feng Jiarui, Gao Zhiyong, Cui Jinggang, Zhou Chuanmin   

  1. Petroleum Geology Research and Laboratory Center,Research Institute of Petroleum Exploration & Evelopment, Beijing 100083, China
  • Received:2016-05-02 Revised:2016-06-15 Online:2016-07-10 Published:2016-07-10
  • Supported by:
    Projet supported by the National Science and Technology Major Prject of the Minstry of Science and Technology of China “The geological evolution process, deep structure and reservoir characteristics in foreland thrust belt and complex structural area”(No.2016ZX05003-001)

Feng Jiarui, Gao Zhiyong, Cui Jinggang, Zhou Chuanmin. The Exploration Status and Research Advances of Deep and Ultra-Deep Clastic Reservoirs[J]. Advances in Earth Science, 2016, 31(7): 718-736.

In recent years, with increasing demand for oil and gas, and advances in exploration methods, deep and ultra-deep (5 000~8 000 m) clastic reservoirs have become a new domain for oil and gas exploration. Research on deep and ultra-deep clastic reservoirs began in the 1970s and has achieved a series of major findings. Under the typical tectonic setting and sedimentary environment of basins in China, deep and ultra-deep clastic reservoirs, having experienced long-term burial, compaction, and dissolution, generally possess good physical properties and have become effective reservoirs. Therefore, the main controlling factors on the formation of such reservoirs have become the focus of research on deep and ultra-deep clastic rocks. Previous studies in this field have made the following findings. ①Dissolution is a general mechanism for the formation of effective deep and ultra-deep clastic reservoirs. Specifically, the organic and inorganic acids generated by organic matter maturation act to dissolve soluble carbonate cement components such as feldspar and lithic fragments, forming secondary pores. ②The lower the geothermal gradient and weaker the intensity of diagenesis, the slower the decrease in sandstone porosity. Thus, the process of long-term early stage shallow burial and rapid late-stage deep burial is conducive to the preservation of primary porosity. ③Anomalous pressure can delay the compaction of rock, inhibiting the expulsion of organic acids that are favorable for the generation of secondary pores in deep and ultra-deep reservoirs. ④Gypsum layers can slow the process of diagenesis, forming dual sealing by physical properties and pressure. This is conducive to the preservation of porosity in sandstone located below the gypsum layer. ⑤Clay film ( e.g., chlorite film) also plays an important role in preserving the porosity of deep and ultra-deep clastic reservoirs. ⑥The formation of effective reservoirs also can also be influenced by the factors of diagenetic compaction, early hydrocarbon filling and clastic particles composition. Geologic research on deep and ultra-deep reservoirs should focus on reservoirs on land as this will strengthen our understanding of offshore reservoirs, especially in deep waters. Moreover, further innovation in theory and technology of oil and gas exploration are required.
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