The Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region is an important engine for China’s socioeconomic development. Timely and effectively assessing constraint factors of resources and environment is of great significance for the sustainability assessment and the sustainable development of this region. However, comprehensive assessment research considering key resource and environmental constraints are still lacking. In this study, therefore, the limiting factors of resources and the environment in the BTH region were assessed based on the framework of landscape sustainability science. First, we chose five limiting factors, including topographic condition, geological environment, water resource, land resource, and atmospheric environment, to assess the constraints of resources and the environment using the single-factor evaluation method and the multi-factor comprehensive evaluation method. Based on the results, we divided the whole region into five subregions, i.e., the ecological conservation subregion, the geological disaster subregion, the water resource scarcity subregion, the atmospheric pollution subregion, and the cropland protection subregion. The results revealed that the northern BTH region was highly constrained by topographic conditions, the central BTH region was strongly constrained by geological environment and water resources, whereas the southern BTH region was constrained mainly by land resources and atmospheric environment. In addition, water resource was the main limiting factor for regional population growth and economic development. In 2010, the water resource scarcity subregion had a total population of 39.59 million, an urban population of 76.90%, and a gross domestic product of 2 455.57 billion yuan. We argue that the sustainable development of the BTH region should explicitly consider the resource and environmental limiting factors, implement land use optimization according to local conditions, maintain multiple land use types and diverse management strategies, based on the perspective of “strong sustainability”, so as to promote the regional sustainable development.