Pamir syntax, a region with vast crustal shortening, doubled crust thickness, huge topographic elevation, and synorogenic extension, profoundly influences the structural deformation, sedimentation and paleoclimate in southwestern Tarim basin. However, the orogenic process of the Pamir is still controversial. Based on the previous research work, the Cenozoic tectonic evolution of the Pamir is summarized as follows. Due to the northward propagation of the IndiaAsia collision and subsequently south dipping subduction along the Main Pamir Thrust, the Pamir experienced tectonic uplift during the Cenozoic. The onset of thrusting and/or slipping along the Main Pamir Thrust, Pamir Frontal Thrust, northern segment of the Karakorum fault and Kashgar-Yecheng transfer system indicates that the northward motion of the Pamir happened at least since ca. 20 Ma BP. The eastwest extension along the Kongur Shan extensional system has an initiation age of 10~7 Ma BP. The termination of slip along the northern segment of the Karakorum fault occurred in the Pliocene and the slip rate of the Kashgar-Yecheng transfer system decreased substantially during the late Miocene or Pliocene, possibly reflecting the substantial decrease of the relative motion magnitude between the Pamir and Tarim plate. To specifically understand the orogeny in Pamir, a couple of aspects of studies should be addressed in the future, involving the spatio-temporal variations of orogenic process, the basin-range coupling and the coupling between shallow crust and deep process.