Phosphorus (P) is one of the limited factors for eutrophication. With the industrial and agricultural development, a large amount of phosphorus and other pollutants enter and accumulate in sediments. Sediments play an important role in overall phosphorus (P) cycling in lake ecosystem, which are thought to act both as a sink and a source of P due to continuous transport of P across the sedimentwater interface. Phosphorus can be released from sediments into overlying water under certain environmental conditions, which may have a significant impact on water quality and result in continuing eutrophication. Under the condition of pure exogenous pollution control, the lake water will be improved in at least tens of years. To improve water quality, it is necessary to promote to reduce phosphorus sources in upstream tributaries and the phosphorus release from sediments. Many methods are used for restraining of P release from sediments, such as bioremediation, strategic dredging and insitu inactivation technology. For the restriction of water depth, bioremediation and strategic dredging can not reduce the P releasing from sediments effectively. Sediments repaired with inactivation agents can improve the water quality. Insitu inactivation technology will play an important role in sediments, especially for the subdeep lakes sediments, reparation. Inactivation agents are used for restraining of P release from sediments ecologically, economically and effectively. However, the application of one technology can solve a problem, and also brings another problem accordingly. This paper gives a review of recent researches on the sediments insitu inactivation technology, inactivation mechanism, advantages and disadvantages of different inactivation agents, such as aluminum, iron, calcium and natural clay minerals. Meanwhile, the priority research areas of sediments in-situ inactivation technology are pointed out: The first is to explore novel agents for insitu inactivation technology; the second is to search new technology system suitable to local conditions for different types of lakes, the third is to strengthen researches of combining applications of sediments inactivation and other technologies; and the last is to strengthen the negative effects assessment of different inactivation technologies, and to find reasonable plans to solve these problems.