Water resources has the characteristics of less average per capita possession, uneven regional distribution, great variation in a year and between years, unmatched water and land resources and obvious effect of human activies in China. Contradiction between water supply and water demand in China is significant, and the developing trend is very serious due to the rapid development of the society and economy. Actually enhancing integrated management of water resources, improving utilization efficiency of water resources, and building science and technology supporting system to guarantee water resources security will be directly related to the whole situation of China’s future development to build a well-off society. In this paper, the development tendency of water resources research was analyzed, the research status and shortage of water resources in China was summarized, and the development ideas and strategic objectives of water resources in Twelfth Five-Year were expounded. And then the particular countermeasures, suggestions and the important issues, which need to be further studied, were presented. Finally, the outlook on the development direction of water resources over a fairly long period in China was also provided.