Polycystine radiolarians play an important role in the research of paleoceanography and paleoenvironment because of their indiscerptible siliceous skeletons and the good corresponding relation between radiolarian assemblage and physical oceanography, hydrographical conditions. With widespread radiolarian application in paleoceanography reconstruction and the improvement of research measures, living radiolarians have been widely studied in the world. China has participated in such deep-sea research programs as IODP, which should accelerate the step of the study of paleoceanography. Radiolaria is an important fauna among the marine micropaleontology, whose ecology knowledge is the base of paleoceanographical and paleoenvironmental reconstruction. Therefore, it is very necessary to offer the latest achievement and progress trends in ecological studies on living radiolarians to research communities, with a view to making our research on radiolarian keep pace with the world and offering more proxies of paleoenvironment and paleoceanography.