Peat geoscience is a discipline to study the rules of formation and evolution of peatlands, wise use and protection of peat resource. It has had a history of more than 40 years since it is initiated in 1960, and has finished its formation stage as a discipline in 1990, and is in the progress period since 1990 in China. The area of peatland is 1 040 000 hm2 and the reserves of peat are 124.8×109 t according to the standard that the water content of peat is 40% in wind dry weight. The peat is mainly distributed in the Northeast and Southwest of China. The systematical research on exchange of nutrients between the plant and peat in the oligotrophic swamp, eutrophic swamp has been made. The reclaimed oligotrophic swamp in the Northeast of China has showed the swamp reclaimed for 5 years have the more productivity than that reclaimed for 3 years and over 10 years. The properties and components of peat in the Northeast of China are also researched and made a contrast with that in Belarus, and the results indicate the differences of properties and components of peat are caused by the different geographical environment. The forming environment comparison between peat and coal, the greenhouse gas in the peatland, hydrology and microtopography in the peatland, the mechanism and periods of forming peat, peat stratum and research on the environmental changes taking peat as carrier of information have also been studied in the recent 10 years. A lot of work on the peatland protection has been developed. The exchange and cooperation on the peat and peatland have made with Belarus, Japan, Malaysia, Canada, USA, Sweden, Ireland and some other countries. The study on peatland restoration is just now made and has bright prospect. The peat has been utilized on the industry, agriculture, environmental protection, horticulture and so on. RS, GIS and GPS are used to reconnaissance, oriente peat resources. Routine 14C, AMS 14C, pollen analysis, C, H, O isotope analysis are applied to the research of environmental evolution. The methods in the lithology, organic geochemistry are also used to peat geoscience. At last the prospective studies in the future are put forward in this paper.