Geography is a science specializing in the study of the interaction between natural and human elements on the Earth surface and their space-and-time regular patterns. In nature, it is an inter-discipline possessed of the characters innate to natural sciences and social sciences alike and features both integration and regionality. Contemporary geography includes physical geography, human geography and geo-informatics. The achievements attained in the 20th century are listed as following:laws on regional differentiation revealed and exploration of regional systems, a comprehensive study of natural processes taking place on the Earth’s surface, the man-nature system and regional development research, compilation of various cartographic works in series such as national albums of maps and atlases, development and application of the geographic information system (GIS). Development trends in geographical research features the following aspects: transdisciplinary intersection, infiltration and interdisciplinary fusion with various adjacent disciplines, enhancement of integrated studies within geography itself, further deepening of microscopic studies on geographical processes, the expansion of applied research fields, the modernization of experimental geography and related technical means, change in theoretical thinking models etc. In order to promote development of the Earth system science and to coordinate man-nature relationship, geographers may make contributions to the following research frontiers: a comprehensive study on the processes and spatial patterns of the terrestrial surface, global change and regional responses to it, guarantees of natural resources and ecosystem reconstruction, sustainable regional development, mechanism of man-nature relationship and regulations, geo-informatics and strategies of digital Earth research, etc.