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地球科学进展  2012, Vol. 27 Issue (6): 633-643    DOI: 10.11867/j.issn.1001-8166.2012.06.0633
综述与评述     
基于等价分析法评估溢油事故的自然资源损害
张蓬1,冯俊乔2,葛林科1,王震1,姚子伟1*,杜廷芹3
1.国家海洋环境监测中心,国家海洋局近岸海域生态环境重点实验室,辽宁大连116023;
2.中国科学院海洋研究所,海洋环流与波动重点实验室,山东青岛266071;
3.山东省环境保护科学研究设计院,山东济南250013
The Assessment of Natural Resource Damages Caused by Oil Spill Incidents based on Equivalency Analysis Methods
Zhang Peng1, Feng Junqiao2, Ge Linke1, Wang Zhen1, Yao Ziwei1, Du Tingqin3
1.Key Laboratory for Ecological Environment in Coastal Areas(SOA),National Marine Environmental Monitoring Center, Dalian116023, China; 2.Key Laboratory of Ocean Circulation and Waves, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao266071, China; 3.Shandong Academy of Environmental Science, Ji′nan250013, China
 全文: PDF(1261 KB)  
摘要:

尽管国际公约和许多国家立法已将海上溢油事故导致的自然资源损失列入索赔范围,然而,在量化和货币化损害以及确定索赔和修复范围等方面尚未建立被广泛接受的计算方法。生境等价分析(Habitat Equivalency Analysis, HEA)和资源等价分析(Resource Equivalency Analysis, REA)是美国和欧盟应用于评估自然资源损害的理论方法,二者的关键假设是受损的生态服务损失和修复计划的服务收益应当相等。HEA结果依赖于生态服务价值标尺选择、服务价值水平、恢复曲线形状、修复计划时长以及贴现率等;REA结果受死亡生物数量和年龄组成的影响。HEA和REA的非货币形式结果补偿的并非生态环境,而是人类社会福祉。目前,一些货币化损失的方法已被提出,然而传统经济学家和生态经济学家之间存在争议。美国部分法庭承认HEA和REA方法,其结果为法庭索赔提供数据支持。如果将生态学和经济学原理结合考虑,将能够促进等价分析法的深入发展,推动索赔工作更加有理有据。

关键词: 溢油自然资源损害评估索赔生境等价分析资源等价分析    
Abstract:

Although the international conventions and laws of many countries have included the ecological damages and natural resource losses resulting from marine oil spill incidents into claim scope recently,  acceptable approaches have not established wordwide  to quantify the ecological losses caused by pollution, scale the sizes of damage and compensation and convert the restorative ecological compensation into economical damage estimates. Habitat Equivalency Analysis (HEA) and Resource Equivalency Analysis (REA), two popular approaches in US and Europe, were reviewed and discussed in detail. The key assumption of these two approaches was that the ecological service losses of injured habitats (or resources) should be equal to those supplied by the restorative projects. HEA which was on the basis of service-to-service approach strongly depended on several parameters, including the choices of ecological service metrics, service levels, the shape of recovery curves, the lengthens of restoration plans, and discount rates. REA which was the upgrade of HEA was impacted by the amounts of dead wildlife and their age classes. Both of the non-monetary results of HEA and REA compensated the human welfare losses rather than the eco-environment and natural resources. As so far, variety of monetization methods of HEA and REA were developed by economists, but widely arguments were triggered by traditional economists and eco-economists. Nevertheless, some US courts upheld HEA and REA as appropriate measures to determine the scale of compensatory restoration projects. Furthermore, the restoration costs derived from HEA and REA supplied data support for settlements out of courts. In the long run, combining the ecological and economical principles is promising to promote the development of equivalency analysis deeply and widely so as to make the claim rational and legal valid.

Key words: Oil spill    Natural resource damage assessment    Claim    Habitat Equivalency Analysis    Resource Equivalency Analysis
收稿日期: 2012-02-04 出版日期: 2012-06-10
:  X55  
基金资助:

国家海洋局近岸海域生态环境重点实验室开放基金项目“近岸海区突发性溢油事故自然资源损害评估体系的研究”(编号:201002);海洋公益性行业科研专项经费项目“沿海危险化学品污染事件海洋预案支撑技术研究及应用示范”(编号:201005034-2)资助. 

通讯作者: 姚子伟(1973-),男,山东淄博人,研究员,主要从事化学品泄露风险评价和持久性有机污染物的环境行为方面的研究.      E-mail: zwyao@nmemc.gov.cn
作者简介: 张蓬(1980-),女,山东东营人,助理研究员,主要从事溢油和化学品泄露生态风险评价和损害索赔研究.E-mail:zhp04@mails.gucas.ac.cn
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引用本文:

张蓬,冯俊乔,葛林科,王震,姚子伟,杜廷芹. 基于等价分析法评估溢油事故的自然资源损害[J]. 地球科学进展, 2012, 27(6): 633-643.

Zhang Peng, Feng Junqiao, Ge Linke, Wang Zhen, Yao Ziwei, Du Tingqin. The Assessment of Natural Resource Damages Caused by Oil Spill Incidents based on Equivalency Analysis Methods. Advances in Earth Science, 2012, 27(6): 633-643.

链接本文:

http://www.adearth.ac.cn/CN/10.11867/j.issn.1001-8166.2012.06.0633        http://www.adearth.ac.cn/CN/Y2012/V27/I6/633

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